Q.1 Explain why instability in Afghanistan is a matter of concern for India. How do you see the removal of U.S combat forces from Afghanistan in this connection?
Ans. Afghanistan is not a neighboring country of India but still it posses a strategic importance for it, although it seems far from India, but it is very closer to it in terms of security. It is considered that a democratic and sovereign authority in Afghanistan can serve the interest of Afghanistan people and can also serve the purpose of long term peaceful engagement of India with Afghanistan. India’s wants long terms engagement with Afghanistan in two major areas one is development assistance and the other is strategic interest.

Apart from this India is also concerned about its Diaspora working there. Further if any civil war is broken there its heat will be no doubt felt by India. Thus political instability in Afghanistan has always remained a matter of concern for India and will remain in future also. Since Ashraf Ghani has taken charge of afghan authority and U.S has kept its combat forces in Afghanistan to control the Taliban, there has been remained peace, law and order.

But as soon as U.S declared in December last year that it is going to end its combat mission, there were questions raised on the capability of Afghan army and also there were assumptions that Taliban and other extremists groups can become active in future . For controlling this Ashraf Ghani has sincerely indulged in peace negotiations with Pakistan for not encouraging terrorism since it has taken charge, as the section of leaders of Taliban are under direct control of Islamabad intelligence.

Now when U.S has removed its forces, such assumptions are proving to be true, Taliban has attacked Afghanistan and has captured a capital of one of its province, it is not difficult for them to capture other areas. This attacks are also showing that Pakistan has does nothing to curb terrorism; all peace negotiations are showing failed results.


It is known to Pakistan only that what it wants whether to transform the regime by Taliban or an occasion of civil war. Therefore, it is matter of concern for India, in all the cases whether Taliban controls the authority or a civil war is broken, and the removal of U.S combat forces was a key factor for again creating instability in Afghanistan.

Q.2 ‘Recent breakthrough with the largest armed group although is a landmark agreement in securing peace in north eastern region, but it is not going to curb all the challenges there’. Discuss those challenges in peace agreements with such insurgency groups and the threats to internal security thereof.
Ans. NSCN (IM) and NSCN (K) and other insurgency groups are active in the north east region of India creating problems in law and order situation of the area. This region is vulnerable to such activities since independence and so far, it has also remained a major problem for government in maintaining its security, unity and integrity of India. People of north east region are also suffering a lot because of this, this region has been mostly controlled by military actions yet, thus initiating peace talks with such insurgency group is definitely a landmark step in securing peace there.

Despite considering this agreement as a landmark, there remain some challenges unsolved. First of all the major factor is that, only NSCN (IM) has taken part in peace agreement, another major faction of it NSCN (K) which is hostile to its decision and other small insurgency groups has not taken part in this negotiations, they remained out of the peace process, in fact opposed NSCN (IM) for taking part in it. It has developed feeling of separatism in non participatory groups, which can be seen in the actions of NSCN (K), when they tried to show their opposition and capabilities by attacking army personnel.

So, it cannot be considered as an inclusive peace agreement as many groups are still out of its ambit. Further, increasing the feeling of separatism in non participant groups, government has kept the agreement a secret, the provisions of agreement are yet not disclosed. There is no clarity on negotiations made my NSCN (IM) , whether they are accepted or not, specially the demand of sovereignty and Nagalim or Greater Nagaland, which included territories of Manipur, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh. If this has been considered it is going to create more distress in the region.

Therefore, the need of the hour is including all groups in peace talks, along with the states which can be effected, further providing them autonomy and sovereignty to take decisions about their lives, without any compromise with India’s sovereignty and integrity. Despite the challenges this agreement can be taken as an opportunity and further steps can be taken for more comprehensive, inclusive and conclusive agreements.

Q.3 Do you see death penalty as an instrument of deterrence for terrorists? Despite the fact that some people also believe it is counter productive. State your views in this regard and also suggest measures to restrict the terrorist activities with the help of psychological methods.
Ans. This argument was invoked after the execution of Yakub Menon, a prime terrorist convicted and executed for Mumbai blast of 1993, by TADA court. The question here is not that, whether this execution was fair or not, it was no doubt a fair and unbiased trail as per the laws prevailing, he was also given every opportunity to prove himself, but the final decision after every appeal and petition was his execution, there was no injustice done. The question here is whether it is deterrence for other terrorist, which can stop them from indulging in such activities. Some people find death penalty as deterrence while some believe it is counter productive.

In fact many countries have removed death penalty from their criminal laws, but it is still prevailing in Indian criminal laws i.e IPC and Crpc for murder, waging war and mutiny and under TADA act 1987 (now repealed) and POTA 2002 (repealed) for terrorists, as India is vulnerable to terror attacks. In Bachan singh case, Justice P.N Bhagwati himself has accepted that death penalty under IPC and Crpc for murder is voilative of fundamental rights provided to citizens under article 14 and 21 in Indian constitution, but at the same time he has also mentioned that he is not including terror attacks here, terrorism should be dealt with death penalty. If we look at the mindset of terrorist, if they are indulging in such activities specially suicide bombing, it means that they are psychologically prepared to give their life for their purpose.

Then this question definitely becomes important that whether death penalty can deter them. In fact they become martyr for other terrorists after their death and also encourages other youth for indulging into this. They become role model. If we are giving them death penalty then we are not going to curb terrorism its just an act of revenge, in fact further we are invoking them for retaliation attacks. On the other side if we are not priding them death sentence we can try to get information about other terrorist from them, this could even more productive in countering terrorism.

Therefore the need is not acting as retaliation, neither removing death penalty but to understand the situation and psychological mindset of terrorists, and even if we are using death penalty, it should be awarded with utmost care. Further the need is to understand and study the psychological mindset of terrorist, reforming them, including the minority sections in growth process, spreading awareness in the youth of country, to stop them being attracted towards terrorism.

Q.4 ‘On one hand Digital India program is a priority for government whereas on the other hand it is full of challenges for the internal security of India’. Discuss
Ans. In a recent speech our Prime minister himself has declared Digital India mission as his one of the priority program. There is a large scope of growth with the help of digital technology along with transparency and accountability. The major objectives of this mission are building infrastructure and access, delivering E-services and increasing digital literacy. One of its major aims is ending import of technology and electronics by 2020 and to create 100 million jobs in the country. It can be a tremendous achievement if implemented properly in the field of e-governance.

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Its benefits are the reason why it is on priority list of the government. Its potential benefits are easing service delivery, reducing corruption with increasing transparency, making governance participatory, creating digital information, promoting e-commerce and economic activities, creating a platform for capacity building and so on. Digital technology has already proven its worth as computerization of money departments has already been done like railways, tax department, etc. but there is still a lot to be done. The smart city project can even not be completed without informatics infrastructure and the JAM trinity also has its base in digital technology.

Further its implementation is not an easy task; we need a lot of efforts and funding for this to be implemented. As per the recent report of TRAI (telecom regulatory authority of India) we are standing at 125th and 113th position in fixed line connectivity and wireless connection respectively. We have even not achieved half the target of making optical fiber network in village level.

These are the challenges in implementing the mission. Besides the challenges the digital India mission also has some threatening issues, as India lacks privacy policy and data protection law, the private data of its citizen can also be misused, especially in such a scenario when India is highly vulnerable to cyber attacks.

It also gives huge powers to the government to track the information of its citizen, which may be create a situation of unwarranted use of information, concerning which our honorable supreme court has also declared Adhaar as violator of right to privacy, to which government still needs to justify.
Therefore to utilize the mission in its real potential, what we need is a strict privacy policy, and stricter laws governing public information and the most important readiness to face any cyber attack challenges to assure the citizens of their security.

Q.5 ‘Terrorism is now not a problem of only India, but has extended worldwide’. Therefore the need of the hour is international joint efforts to counter terrorism’. Elaborate and also discuss how India can play a prominent role in this regard.
Ans. Although India is highly vulnerable to terrorism, frequent terror attacks in India remains one of the important factor in pulling its growth down, but terrorism is not limited to India or few countries, now it has spread almost all over the world. For an example recent terror attack on Charlie Hebdo office in Paris, frequent murders of bloggers in Bangladesh, the ongoing war in Syria etc. even the most developed countries like U.S.A and Russia are also facing these problems. Such wars not only affect the victim country but also its neighboring countries as they face the problem of unwanted refugees. Such terror attacks are done purposefully to attract the attention of authority, their objective is to capture political power.

They generally target innocent people, which can be easily reached. Terrorism has various causes political, economical and social. Terrorism today is a worldwide problem, as inequality is there in every country, although in a different degree. Those who are dissatisfied with the authority adopt the method of violence to show their dissatisfaction. One more thing which can be seen today as a major cause of terrorism is religious intolerance.

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Despite being a major problem all over the world, there is not a single agreement on terrorism on international platform whereas there are number of economic, social and political agreement and this issue has not gain any place at international level, even what terrorism is? Who is a terrorist? Has not been defined yet. Every country has adopted a different definition of terrorism and terrorist, even some countries also support terrorism.

Therefore the need of the hour is defining terrorism at international level, there is requirement of a unified definition and provisions, a stricter international law is needed to counter terrorism, which should clearly define what terrorism is, who is terrorist, what should be the path to be followed by the countries in this regard, what would be the punishments for the countries supporting terrorism and so on. India is vulnerable to terror attacks, and also it seems that terrorism is gaining some momentum in international floor, it can be taken as an opportunity by India to attract global attention towards this issue seriously and so that the world could come at single conclusion and agreement about terrorism, which could help India end its vulnerability to terrorism and grow peacefully further.

Q.6 With reference to recent CAG report on Indian forces discuss the challenges of Indian combat forces in maintaining the peace and order in the country and suggest measures to overcome those challenges.
Ans. The recent CAG report on Indian combat force and the report of parliamentary committee thereof are matter of concern for the government, security forces and citizens. The CAG report states that our army is left with arms and ammunition for 15- 20 days only, where as it is considered that at least ammunition for 40 days should be reserved for the war like condition, and it has been considered that this situation is because of lack of funds, therefore the reports are demoralizing the army as well as citizen.

On the other hand parliamentary committee’s report states that the defense department is unable to spend the amount allocated to it. The challenges for defense department is that they are lacking arms and ammunition, our army is not equipped with modern artilleries, budget allocation is just 1.7 percent of GDP whereas other countries like Russia spends 4.1 percent, America 3.8 percent, Pakistan 3 percent, china two percent of its GDP which is higher than India.

Tejas our indigenous fighter plane is being prepared since 30 years but it has not been developed yet. This year in budget allocation only 7.9 percent increment has been done, which is very less as per defense department which could only be spent in salary, maintenance and purchasing old artilleries. Only 8 percent has been allocated for new projects which seems to be very less as the army wanted to start 20 new projects. Further there is also lack of army personnel.

Decision imposed by beaurocrats of defense department without understanding the technicalities of army also hampers the work of it. All this has put a question mark on defense ministry’s work. So, these all are hampering the law and order and morale of the people here.

These problems can be solved by increasing the budget allocation for defense sector, increment of FDI in defense from 26 percent to 49 percent can be seen as a good step regarding this, recruitment of army personnel should be timely completed, arms and ammunitions should be provided timely, proper utilization of funds allocated should be taken care of, army officers can be given place in defense department, e-governance initiatives can also be taken to reduce corruption there, modernization of army should be done as soon as possible . This could only maintain the faith of citizenry on the government, for their safety and for maintaining the morale and confidence of army.

Q.7 What are the concerns of India related to china Pakistan economic corridor (CPEC)? Do you think that it can be helpful in improving the conditions of POK if yes how?
Ans. China Pakistan economic corridor (CPEC) is a 3000 km long corridor from Kashnagar of china to Gwadar port of Pakistan via roads, railways, business zones, energy schemes and pipelines. It is considered as biggest connectivity after karakoram highway. It is going to reduce the distance by 12000 km for china from middle east, which would benefit china for its energy imports from middle east. For the Pakistan it would benefit it economically through various projects, china is also going to develop Gwadar sea port of Pakistan which is rather underdeveloped.

Here comes the concerns of India as this economic corridor passes through Pak occupied Kashmir (POK) which is a territorial dispute between India and Pakistan. This region is strategically important for India for its security, thus development of any such infrastructure in this territory is a matter of concern for India.

Further, this project will give China direct access to Indian Ocean’s Arabian Sea through Gwadar port, which is again strategically important for India’s security concerns. There fore there was a bit concern about the project when it was announced by china. Although there were some questions rose in India about the matter, but soon it was seen that this project can improve the economic condition of Pakistan as well as POK, which is better for stability in the region.

The infrastructure development, employment creation, and economic growth through this project can in future bring a solution to the dispute of POK. Thus India ignored its concerned for the time. Although we have ignored the concerns for now, but it has to be seen that the project should be implemented transparently, keeping aspirations of all stakeholders in mind, which could transform the economy of region better.

Q.8 Despite the fact that draconian laws like TADA and POTA were failed experiences, still some states are demanding the approval for such laws as they consider that ‘organized crime has no limits’. State your opinion in this regard.
Ans. This issue was recently in news that Gujarat has again placed an anti terror bill, Gujarat control of terrorism and organized crime (GCTOC) bill 2015 in its assembly, as the previous one was not approved. The first question here is despite already having Crpc laws for dealing with different crimes, why anti terror laws like TADA, POTA and MCOCA are needed, the answer is ‘organized crime has no limits’ whereas our Crpc has some limits. Therefore these special Laws were needed to fight terrorism with more powers.

To understand this we need to know why TADA, MCOCA and POTA were introduced, they were introduced after the Punjab militancy, Mumbai serial blast of 1993 and parliamentary attack of 2001, respectively, when the police said that Crpc is not enough to deal with the present scenario of internal security, and with these acts more power where given to police to investigate the respective matters. As there was a question of internal security of the country these were the much needed actions. Further, these much needed law has resulted into abuse of power.

They were implemented for terror crimes only but they were used in almost every type of cases from real estate to prostitution to match fixing. Further these laws had many provisions which were misused cruelly violating fundamental and human rights of people. So, finally TADA and POTA were repealed. Only MCOCA is in force since then in Maharashtra, and also in Delhi since 2002. Now, Gujarat is trying to enforce it on the model of MCOCA, but it has some draconian provisions like TADA and POTA for which it is being opposed.

It allows the custody for 180 days whereas in normal laws it is maximum 90 days. It is accepting the confessions under custody as evidence in court; this provision has been misused previously through custodian torture, so there is no guarantee that it will not be misused further. These provisions make it a draconian law. Further, if we go deep, such laws are not actually not needed, as they violator of human rights and also of fundamental rights. What we can do is provide better training to the police for investigation, under Crpc only, as it is also comprehensive.

Q.9 Mention potential threats of nuclear armament, and how we can achieve universal nuclear disarmament? Do you consider Iran nuclear deal as a landmark agreement in this regard?

Ans. There is a blind race among countries for gaining and improving nuclear technology as a new means of energy generation despite knowing its potential threats. Development of nuclear technology is a good step until the intension is energy generation, but beyond that if it is for nuclear weapon development it is the most dangerous and inhumane form of weapon and cannot be justified on any ground.

Its potential threats can be-

• They are unique in their destructive power and their scale of human suffering they form.

• Have catastrophic, long lasting effects on human health, environment, climate, food production and socio economic development.

• Their health impact can last for decades and even be transferred genetically from survivors of attack to their children.

• Their continued existence and intentional or accidental use is a matter of concern.

• Gives slow and painful death to those survivors of attack who are exposed to radiations, which remains in the atmosphere for decades.

The most prominent example of intentional use of nuclear weapon was Hiroshima and Nagasaki attack, survivors of this attack are still suffering from the impacts of it, even after 70 years of attack they have not overcome that catastrophic impact.

Another example of nuclear threat which was accidental is Chernobyl incident, which shows that even existence of nuclear material has potential threats. For controlling nuclear weapons, there exists Nuclear non proliferation treaty and CTBT act, but they have not served the true purpose of non proliferation of nuclear arms neither they are successful in banning nuclear test nor they have achieved any thing towards nuclear disarmament, rather they divide countries into two groups, haves and have not.

Therefore the need of the hour is rational, impartial, universal and verifiable treaty for nuclear disarmament and the proper implementation of it. In such scenario where different countries have different views about nuclear armament, Iran nuclear deal is a landmark in the history of nuclear peace talks, which has peacefully succeeded in curbing Iran’s intention of developing nuclear bomb, which could have proven a security disaster.

This deal also shows that such sensitive matters can be solved through peace talks, so this path should also be adopted towards complete nuclear disarmament for human safety.

Q.10 ‘Military attacks alone cannot control the extremist wings, thus the need of the hour is a combined approach of military and welfare schemes’. Elucidate.
Ans. The extremist wings are Maoist or Naxalides, who are basically tribes, whose main purpose is they do not want any disturbance in their forest areas, they want to rule themselves their tribes and gradually they have developed a feeling of separatism and want to be separated from the mainstream. They are deprived of the fruits of development since long time, despite welfare schemes; much has not been achieved regarding mainstreaming them.

They have been suppressed long through military actions without the consideration of their poor economic conditions and their problems. This issue regained momentum with the recent Maoist attack in Sukma, Kanker and Dantewada district of Chhatisgarh. This state is vulnerable to frequent naxal attacks, which shows that the state has neither strategy nor quality resources to handle such attacks.

Thus it has become the centre for Naxal activities and spreading extremist ideology for India. The state seems to have no new idea to fight naxalism, they are ill- prepared and have not much knowledge of combat designs of maoist. The message of maoist is very clear with their frequent violent activities, that they continue violent activities if they are not left unhindered, blowing of mines and other infrastructure shows that they are restricting economic activities in their forest area, to save forest so that they continue their activities there.

Efforts like forest right acts, vanbandhu kalyan yojna etc, till now have not shown any improvement in mainstreaming these tribes, what we need today is a combined approach of military action with genuine welfare schemes and their proper implementation. Once these extremists will start getting fruits of the development, they will automatically improve.

Q.11 Do you think that section 66A of IT Act, which has recently been declared void by Supreme Court, was an important instrument for handling cyber crimes? Or it was more a violator of human rights than protector of them?
Ans. To understand this, first we need to know why IT act 2008 was brought. This act came after Mumbai attacks 2008, during which media was criticized for its coverage of story; the every minute live telecast of operation was shown by media openly which helped terrorists to know about our operational activities, this put a question mark on role of media during such internal security situations. Further, there were many incidents, incited through social media or use of information technology, which disturbed the law and order situation of the country.

Thus, it was necessary in this situation to strictly regulate, use of this new technology for maintaining law and order, which was lacking so far. In such scenario, came Information technology (amendment) act 2008, whose article 66A provides punishment for sending offensive messages. This article was misused by the politicians, charging the law upon those who expressed their political dissent through social media.

Therefore, a PIL was filed against this law to the supreme court, that this draconian article is a violator of fundamental right provided to citizens under article 19 of the constitution, our apex court in its final verdict held this article as vague and ambiguous, and declared null and void. Although this law was brought to restrict the misuse of information and communication technology for inciting people for crimes, but actually it was vague and ambiguous, as it did not clearly defined the difference between discussion, advocacy and incitement. Further we should not forget that ‘what may be offensive to one may not be offensive to other’.

One thing here should be noticed that laws are intentionally violator of our rights, its use decides, its prevalence. And flaws of this laws were misused by the authority in power. Therefore what no doubt that this article was more a violator of our rights, and once again our judiciary proved that it is the custodian of our fundamental rights, this victory was celebrated loudly by the citizens, as their freedom of thought and expression was secured by the apex court.

But the matter is not closed here because this cannot be ignored that this technology has many potential threats and is really being used by some people for the anti nationalist activities. Thus no doubt we need to set some limitations of its use, but for this we need a law which is more comprehensive, which clearly defines provisions, mentions clear definitions of offences, and are not vague and ambiguous. This is more needed when we are going towards digital India.

Q.12 What do you understand by ‘Golden Triangle’ and ‘Golden Crescent’? How do they affect India?
Ans. These two figures show the connecting geographical positions of Asia’s opium producing countries. Figure A shows the troika of Myanmar, Laos and Thailand, and figure B shows the troika of Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran. These were in news recently because Thailand which has stopped producing opium has restarted its production, for the livelihood of its farmers.

Golden triangle is one of Asia’s two opium producing areas, which was the largest producer of opium till early 21st century, it covers the mountains of three south east Asian countries, where the rural people have no choice other than producing opium for their livelihood, and its connection with china pushes it to produce opium as china is the largest consumer of heroine. Golden Crescent is another opium producing area, located at the crossroads of central, south and western Asia. Among these three countries only Afghanistan and Pakistan is opium producing countries, Iran is consumer and Trans shipping route for smugglers.

Afghanistan is the largest producer of opium in world. If we see India’s geographical location, it is located in between, golden triangle at its south east corner and golden crescent at its North West corner. India has been affected by the acts of smuggling, as India is the shortest route to connect these two opium producing regions.

Further, these two neighboring regions are the factors responsible for increase of drug abuse in India. These two regions on our borders are making drug easily accessible in borders, to which India youth are getting attracted. Especially child drug abuse has become a matter of worry for India.

As drugs are easily accessible to youth they getting distracted from the main path, which is dragging India’s youth power towards destruction. It needs to be counter through strict border management, restricting smuggling activities spreading awareness among youth and children.

Q.13 What is ‘BOTNET’? Discuss how India is more vulnerable to cyber attacks?
Ans. ‘BOTNET’ is a top malware infection to which India is most vulnerable, where hackers take control of user’s computer and use it to send spam or performing other malicious activities. This was recently revealed by a security firm.

As per the report Delhi topped the list, which most vulnerable to cyber attacks. India seems to be more vulnerable to cyber attacks; there are many reasons for this-

• A large democracy, with a large population, where people believe in right to privacy, right to freedom of speech, thought, and expression. They mostly use digital technology to enjoy such rights. They have been using social platforms for expressing their thought, enjoying rights, specially the era of smart phones has brought more people on such platforms, use of internet has increased a lot, many apps have been launched, we all are fond of downloading new app, checking new websites, which looks attractive to us, but we rarely care about the security concerns, without reading the terms and conditions we rush to download such apps.

• We ignore safety guidelines like updating security software, changing security passwords frequently.

• Basically what we lack is digital education, we are having large number of unaware internet users, and illiteracy remains a major challenge.

• We are lacking a comprehensive, verifiable and implemental cyber policy.

• This all becomes more risky when we are talking about connecting rural areas digitally, when we are talking about providing free Wi-fi access, which increases risk by providing easy entry to hackers in the system.

• Our internet banking system, are also not up to the mark even though our banks are spending a large amount to keep their sites secure.

• Looking at all this concern, we need to ensure that before moving towards digitalization, a digital policy should be framed, appropriate laws should be implemented, digital literacy should be increased and people should be made aware of its potential threats.

Q.14 Cyber warfare is considered more dangerous than even nuclear war, why? Discuss the potential threat of cyber attacks for India and suggest some preventive measures.
Ans. Nuclear power has large potential of destroying any country, also has a long lasting effect, but it needs missiles, nuclear raw material like uranium, plutonium or thorium, it needs development of technology, for fighter planes, warships, and missiles. It needs human resources in large number, it needs to develop a system controlling nuclear weapons, it also posses’ accidental risks for the country possessing it.

Whereas a cyber attack needs nothing what mentioned above. It just needs a group of few computer masters, hackers, and computer software engineers, who can destroy any country without any arms and ammunition. A best example of cyber attack was Stuxnet virus which used for damaging Iranian nuclear centrifuges; it was possible as hackers got the command over Iran’s centrifuge controlling system.

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Hackers with a command, made a complex machine to spin beyond its tolerance. Even the Iranian’s were unable to understand what was going on there. This is the power of cyber attack. It can be used for any system which the hackers want to destroy. Just think of if the hackers got control over its enemy country’s nuclear network system, the can destroy the enemy country, with their weapons only.

If they destroy power grid of any country, that country could go for blackout for months. Power grid cyber attack has been experienced by Brazil. In this way, they can have control over any digital system which runs on computer commands, without any physical involvement and can damage things sitting in any corner of the world.

That is why cyber attack is considered as more dangerous than nuclear one. India seems to be more vulnerable to cyber attacks; there are many reasons for this-

• A large democracy, with a large population, where people believe in right to privacy, right to freedom of speech, thought, and expression. They mostly use digital technology to enjoy such rights.

• We ignore safety guidelines like updating security software, changing security passwords frequently.

• Basically what we lack is digital education, we are having large number of unaware internet users, and illiteracy remains a major challenge.

• We are lacking a comprehensive, verifiable and implemental cyber policy

• This all becomes more risky when we are talking about connecting rural areas digitally, when we are talking about providing free Wi-fi access, which increases risk by providing easy entry to hackers in the system.

• Our internet banking system, are also not up to the mark even though our banks are spending a large amount to keep their sites secure. Looking at all this concern, we need to ensure that before moving towards digitalization, a digital policy should be framed, appropriate laws should be implemented, digital literacy should be increased and people should be made aware of its potential threats, moreover we can utilize the potential of our computer engineers, for securing our digital systems, who are otherwise moving to others countries.

Q.15 ‘It is a matter of concern for India that world’s most prominent terror group has reached to its next door’. Suggest the strategy to be adopted by India while responding such threats.

Ans. It is a matter of concern for India, as its neighboring country has came in the purview of Islamic state. Recent murders of 4 Bangladeshi bloggers, and a recent murder of an Italian in Dhaka, arrest of an Islamic state inspired terrorist, who planned an attack on country’s government, and Islamic state taking responsibility of the murder, are not accident they are all planned, thus now it has to be taken seriously by the Indian government, as the most active and prominent terror organization has reached to its neighborhood.

India is now having fear from eastern front also, here in the western front already the Taliban of Afghanistan and Pakistan has pledged loyalty to Islamic state. In fact the Taliban triumph of Afghanistan has given bitth to Jihadism. India has also found connections of some Indian youths with this terror organization, and has also started feeling of Jihadism spreading in India. Thus, now time has come that this matter has to be taken and dealt with seriousness and sensitivity.

While India should be prepare to faced any potential challenge, but it also has some limitations, our RAW and IB are not skilled with language and technology which this terror group uses, thus we first need capacity building of our intelligence agency, should be prepared with arms and ammunitions. Further we have to keep in mind that politicization on the ground of communalism should not be done.

We have to maintain peace and communal harmony in the country so that Jihadism should not spread in India, for this political class has to take hard steps, to maintain secularity of the country. Further efforts should be made to take this issue to the global platform, and should try for joint global efforts to end terrorism.

Q.16 Discuss the significance of induction of Agni-V missile in Indian army how it is going to enhance the preparedness of Indian forces to counter nuclear attacks.
Ans. Recently DRDO demonstrated a flawless successful test fire of AGNI-V missile, which can target up to 5000km away, which can include much of china and whole of Pakistan. It was launched through a truck mounted canister, which is not an easy task. Its complex features are significant for Indian army to fight ant nuclear attack. Being canister based it has ability to move around which cannot be located and destroyed easily, being canister based it can be easily transported, can be launched with rapid force and in all weather.

As it is canister based it can also make decoy possible, it can be detected by spy satellites passing overhead, but it cannot be identified that the canister is carrying a missile or not, so in such condition it would be rather risky and uncertain for the enemy to target this missile. DRDO had already launched canister based missiles, like BRAHMOS and Shaurya, but still it was difficult to launch this 17 meter long and 50 ton weighed missile through canister which required greater force.

Therefore, the flawless and hitch less launched of this missile shows the capability of Indian scientist, with its successful test, they have proved that they have become master of such complex technology. India should keep in mind that Pakistan and China have already developed nuclear weapons beyond the conventional level. So induction of this missile into service will provide some extent of confidence to India being prepared for any nuclear attack.

Q.17 No doubt ICT (Information and communication technology) can push the country towards growth but on the other side it can also be counter productive and can be a threat to the security of it. Elaborate. Do you think imposing ban on web contents is the easiest and appropriate solution to this?

Ans. When we go forward with technology, no doubt it shows us two faces one is good and the other is bad. Technology has positive and negative impacts both, But this depends upon the intensions of the user. Therefore technology has ability to either give positive results or may also prove counter productive depending upon the conscience of the user. Information and communication technology can benefit as easing service delivery, reducing corruption with increasing transparency, making governance participatory, creating digital information, promoting e-commerce and economic activities, creating a platform for capacity building and so on.

Digital technology has already proven its worth as computerization of money departments has already been done like railways, tax department, etc. but there is still a lot to be done. The smart city project can even not be completed without informatics infrastructure and the JAM trinity also has its base in digital technology.

But at the same time it is also showing its negative impacts, this technology is dragging youth into terrorist group, which can be proved disastrous for any country; it can be used to destroy the communication system and other digital system of any country, in other words cyber attack. We can see many attractive advertisements in internet which attracts people, on one hand it can be used for e-commerce, on the other it can also be used for advertising such things which are banned in one country but not in other, best example is sex determination tests, recently apex court has given instructions to search engines of Google, Microsoft and yahoo for removing the advertisements ands links related to sex determination tests.

Government also from time to time bans many websites which are either run by terrorists or contains some contents which government wants to restrain from public. Apex court has also shown its concern on the inability and helplessness of government as it is yet not able to find a legal framework to control web content.

In such a situation India can exposed to vulnerability of technological misuse. In any case blocking or banning websites does not seems be a permanent or appropriate solution as it’s a general tendency that people are more anxious towards the things which restricted to them. Thus government needs a strict, appropriate and implemental legal framework to handle the counter productivity of technological use, along with spreading awareness in the country.

Q.18 Do you agree that, Tax evasion should also be treated as other criminal offences under money laundering act 2002, if yes suggest amendments.
Ans. Tax evasion is basically done by those who earn enough income; they are the owners of small business to multinational companies to big business houses, who are rather reputed people. Tax evasion is done in various ways, rampant evasion can be seen in real estate, for an example someone purchase a house for higher rate but shows a very less amount in paper to evade from tax payment, and rest money he pays in cash through personal contracts. Business houses show their articulated accounts to evade tax.

The money collected in form of tax, is used by the exchequer for the economic and social welfare of the public, and tax which is evaded, which should come to exchequer for being used in roads, railways, public infrastructure, health and education of general public, is therefore part of public accounts.

This evaded tax is not further used by the tax evaders in any useful work, rather they are used for luxurious items like costly cloths, jewelry, and so on, which they purchase in cash, or rather this money is deposited in their accounts abroad, which is not being used in any national benefit. Therefore, tax evasion should be rather considered as national crime.

Presently tax evasion is treated as civil offence, for which only fine has to be paid, which hardly matters for big and reputed businessman. So, they are hardly worried about it, it has become their usual act.

For this purpose apex court has appointed a SIT, which has recommended that tax evasion should be treated criminal offences and the cash transaction should be limited to 15 lakhs. This recommendations seems to be hopeful in curbing tax evasion, as if the reputed person will be treated as criminal offender, and will be awarded imprisonment, will deter about his reputation, this will no doubt restrict them.

Jail term is although a provision in income tax act 1961, but it is hardly, enforced. Therefore the money laundering act 2002 is needed to be amended with a provision that tax evasion would be treated as other criminal offences and would also be awarded with jail term for tax evasion and should also put a cap on cash transactions, while keeping in mind the stricter enforcements of law.

Q.19 Growth in cyber crime in India has been revealed by national crime record bureau, in this regard an expert committee has submitted its report, with reference to that suggest how we can tackle cyber crime.
Ans. As national crime record bureau revealed that there is a increment in cyber attacks, soon ministry of home affairs had appointed a 5 member expert committee to recommend on following-

a) Recommending a roadmap for effectively tackling cyber crimes in the country, especially against children and women.

b) Recommending possible partnership with public and private agencies, NGO, international bodies and international NGO. Recently this expert committee submitted its report to MHA, it said there is a need to reduce cyber crime especially online abuse against children and women.

It recommended that-

• There is a need to monitor and block websites with online abuse, and there was a quick reaction of government that it blocked nearly 800 sites. • Supporting laws are needed to be strengthened.

• Parents are to be made aware to educate their children about good internet use.

• And the most prominent recommendation was establishing Indian cyber crime coordination centre or I4C whose main features are- making an early warning system which could monitor, analyze and counter cyber attacks and facilitate online reporting for cyber crimes, real time analytics of various categories of cyber crime, facilitate India’s cooperation with global internet giants like Google, Facebook etc, which can control the content from their servers, in recent visit of our Prime minister to Google and Facebook office can be seen in pace with this.

Further, this I4C should have branches at states and Union territories, it should have synchronization with NATGRID and CCTNS (crime and criminal tracking network and systems). It should also provide technical assistance to our CBI and other investigating agencies. Therefore, if these recommendations are implemented properly, it could achieve a much reduction in cyber crimes and quick tracking of criminals.

Q.20 What do you mean by SMART policing? In the light of this program suggest various reforms required in the police system of India.
Ans. SMART stands for S-sensitive and strict, M-modern with mobility, A-alert and accountable, R-reliable and responsive, T-trained and techno-savvy. Now government wants that police should have all these qualities, to redraw negative image of police. It’s an government police reform initiative, whose foundation stone lies in SMART police stations. There would be one model smart police station in each state.

This will be established with the help of private sector and CSR (corporate social responsibility), these police station will be citizen friendly and clean. The operational and welfare needs of police personnel posted there will be taken care of. Basic amenities like waiting area, toilets, drinking water and reception will be created. Rest rooms for constables, CCTV cameras, safe and secure armory, record room, communication room etc will also be there.

With all these facilities police will be made smart in working and dealing things. Our police is dealing with law and order situation, but their condition is not good, they are not equipped with modern arms and equipments, they works for our safety, all the time, they compromise their family and other things for our safety, but what they get for this is very less, and further, their image has been deprived gradually due to rampant corruption and their method of dealing cases. But is has also to be kept in mind that not all corrupt, but this all has to dealt seriously.

The need of the hour is actually inculcating SMART values in them, they are to be equipped with modern equipments, they are to be trained in a manner we want see them, they have to mitigate the negative image of police, for this home minister has already guided them that they identify and highlight good works done by police and should make it public, so that the police should regain the trust of common people. Police has to make their image people friendly especially while dealing with females, female should also get equal entry in police system.

Government has already taken various steps in this regard, like recruitment of female police, e-reporting, and SMART policing etc, but still there is a lot to work upon above said reforms, let us hope that it will be achieved soon.

Q.21 Discuss the significance of NATGRID in enhancing the country’s counter terrorism capability.

Ans. The NATGRID is conceived to be a framework which will leverage information technology to connect approved user agencies (security/law enforcement) with designated data providers (Airlines, banks, SEBI, Railways, Telecom, etc) with a view to enhance country’s counter terrorism capability. The platform envisages approved operating procedures and oversight mechanisms to facilitate access between users and providers to enable them to analyze and disseminate information/intelligence for synergizing efforts to counter-terrorism related activity. Over past few years we have found that terrorist make use of technology to radicalize, communicate, raise and move funds- all the while remaining “under the radar”.

A case in point was the use of secure communication technology by the planners of terrorist’s attacks. The NATGRID framework will use cutting edge technology to help strengthen the intelligence and law enforcement agency’s ability to detect terrorist activity, and swiftly piece together information that could help pre-empt attacks or find the perpetrators in the unfortunate event.

By creating such a system we are also sending message to our enemies and terrorists that there is high possibility now to catch them. This framework needs a specialized skill that is why government has appointed specialists from both government and private sector.

Q.22 Discuss the important changes in Border Area Development Program. How it can be helpful in securing our border areas.
Ans. Border area development program (BADP) was started in year 1986-87 in 17 states which are connected to land international boundaries. Its main objective was to fulfill special developments needs, border security and well being of people living in border areas. Its aim was saturate border with entire essential infrastructure, with combine schemes of centre, state and local schemes. Recently ministry of home affairs has introduced some changes in the program, as the remote villages in our border areas are frequently hit by the enemies.

The changes are-

• Development of villages under 0-10 km range of international boundary has to be developed entirely.

• Convergence of schemes under various ministries like ministry of rural development, sports and youth affairs, health and family welfare and human resource with BADP has been directed by ministry of home affairs.

• Construction of helipads in remote and inaccessible hilly areas.

• Implementation of new schemes like Swachh Bharat abhiyan, skill development, sports training, rural terrorism, protection of heritage.

• Third party inspection of scheme. The above mentioned changes would help develop border area and will also achieve capacity building in people their.

Through development of tourism and construction of helipads would help in connectivity to such areas easily and its proper management will be possible. Sports training and skill development would help to make the people self dependent and so that they will remain connected to the main stream and do not develop feeling of alleviation and should not therefore attract towards anti national activities rather they could help in securing borders by supporting and supplementing our border force, providing relevant information at time etc. In this way this program will secure internal security.

Q.23 Discuss the role of advanced technology in maintaining internal security of India.

Ans. Today we refer information and communication technology as advanced technology, which is a very powerful tool for any country to thrive its economic growth, not only economic growth it is helpful in various other growth aspects of a country. It is the role of this technology that today we can see a far seated person; we can talk a person sitting in one corner from another corner of the world. We cover a large distance in a short while it is all technology.

In the era of globalization the world has moved towards higher technology, world has reached space, we also have to keep pace with the world; we have to compete global standards, which can be achieved through advanced technology only. Here we will discuss only its potential uses in internal security scenario of India-

• All the new age war weapons are controlled with the use of ICT, they are helpful in saving our human capital by some automatically operated weapons. Like guided missiles, aircrafts etc. for example- Agni-V

• We can make use of laser technology, to fence our unfenced riverine borders with laser wall, which would be helpful in checking infiltration. for ex- Farheen laser was used by our BSF in Jammu district in riverine area near Indo-pakistan international border.

• With the help of RADAR system we can trace and track the spy satellites of enemies overhead us, we can detect missiles and other weapons of enemies coming into our region. For example we are developing, GAGAN and IRNSS for navigation purpose.

• E-governance initiative like CCTNS (crime and criminal tracking network system), can help tracking any criminal in one go, it would help modernization of police system and prepare police to face new age challenges.

• This technology can also be used to counter any cyber attack on our country.

• This technology can be used to aware and communicate public for security purpose.

There are many other direct and indirect uses of this technology, that is why India is moving towards, minimum government and maximum governance with the help of information and communication technology through its National E-governance program, and also there is a race to digitalize India.

Q.24 ‘CCTNS’ project has a potential to make landmark change in internal security scenario. Elucidate.
Ans. CCTNS stands for crime and criminal tracking network system, which is an E-governance initiative and part of police modernization program under National E-governance mission. It is aimed at managing and monitoring internal security situation in the country. Under this program many e-initiatives are to be taken, like e-courts, e-prisons, e- hospitals, it is a software application, under which e-fir’s has already been started in various police stations; its status can also be tracked online. Under this, a data base of crime records and criminals is being created, so that they should be tracked by pressing just one button.

This program will also be connected with NATGRID. This program has high potentials; let us take e-courts; today we have to produce criminals in court physically while their case hearing and taking dangerous criminals and terrorists from jail to court has high risk, as most terrorist or their co-partners plan to escape during this transmission period, but if hearing are done through video conferencing, this risk could be reduced. Similarly, e-hospitals can be used for health check up or treatment of terrorists and other danger criminals, which would not have any risk of their escape, as they will be in jail only.

E-fir’s and their online tracking can bring transparency and accountability in police system, which would also help to develop faith of citizens in police and will be saved from exploitation and corruption. There fore technology and its implementation in such like projects are very useful in maintaining the internal security of the country, this project has been started working in its first phase as e-fir’s has been already started in many police stations, and the work of preparing database of crimes and criminal records has also been started and satisfactory work has been completed in this regard. Thus, this project is being considered as a landmark change in internal security scenario, this has also been accepted by our home minister recently.

Q.25 Discuss the role of NCRB in enhancing security of the country as they have now become the backbone of all law and order departments.
Ans. We all know that in present scenario crime has increased and widened, its nature and potentials has changed, and its reach has increased. Today in this new age of technology new type of crimes have emerged, nature of crime has changed and its complexity has increased. In this situation, the nature of our investigation and methods of crime tackling has also to be changed, our investigating systems has to be improved, we have to run one step ahead of criminals.

Thus, the priorities of police has changed to law and order, organized crime, VIP security, public protests, etc. crime has increased using advanced information, communication and transport technology. Therefore, here comes the role of National crime record bureau in enhancing security of the country and its citizen.

It has various functions such as-

• Coordinate information on inter-state and international criminal records.

• Works as clearing house of information on crime and criminals to assist investigators.

• Maintains crime and criminal related statistics.

• Coordinates and assists state crime bureaus.

• Provides training.

• Evolves, develops and modernizes database of crime and criminals.

• Works as CCTNS, crime record branch, central finger print bureau, etc.

As, its functions play a vital role in tracking crime and criminals, investigation, maintaining statistics, it becomes important part of security system. It provides all data related to crime to various ministries, departments, investigation agencies, and intelligence agencies.

As it is the point of coordination and information sharing among various securities related agencies, various operations and plans are planned taking information from this agency, it has become backbone of all law and order related departments.

Q.26 What do you understand by BIO CRIME? Discuss how it can become most dangerous way of war.
Ans. BIO CRIME, is an emerging new weapon of crime, it can be biological hacking, biological attack or even biological war. It’s an emerging domain of battle in future; it is real and intangible much like cyber crime. It’s a domain of biology; it is although easier to hack but hard to defend. In the era of technology we are trying hard to achieve heights in biotechnology, to know the biological formation of organism, a lot has already been achieved, like DNA sequencing, cloning, biometric identification, and synthetic virus evolution etc.

we are trying to maintain biodiversity through biotechnology, in the energy sector also we have developed bio fuel, in agricultural sector biogas and bio fertilizer have already been developed. A lot has been achieved already but a lot is being experimented. We have seen that every technology has its positive and negative uses, depends upon the conscience of the user.

Thus, there are possibilities that biotechnology can be used of crime, and that would be termed as ‘BIO CRIME’.

There are many ways though which biotechnology can be used for crime purpose-

• Unwanted genetic information or organisms can be transmitted to any area, like synthetic virus and insects.

• We are using today biometric identification in many areas, so DNA or biometric scanners, or clinics which looks genuine, may fool people for collecting their sample that can be used for crime purpose.

• Collecting biometric information, without our permission, through cameras and sensors, which includes our gait analysis, finger prints, retinal scan and high resolution face and body scan.

• Passing harming pharmaceuticals and therapies, passing experimental medicines, mislabeling fish meat or other ingredients, cloning or synthesized DNA to plant at crime scene.

• Using genetic code, sequencing organisms, or stealing cell that can produce medicine or biotech products.

• Personalized biological attack, like inducing virus, cell or Nano particles in individuals.

• Creating disorder using biological agents like Anthrax, releasing such like agents although in small amount can disrupt a city.

As mentioned above such attacks are although easy to hack but hard to defend. For an example if there is a attack through a harmful virus, knowing this we cannot help if we don’t remedial technology for this. And such technologies take sometimes years to be developed. We have seen an example of deadliest impact of Ebola virus, it was not an attack, but we took a lot of time to develop its vaccination, it killed many so far.

We can imagine if something like this has been done as an attack through synthesized virus, it may destroy any technologically backward country it will be helpless in such like situation. Therefore Biological war is being considered as most dangerous and hardly defendable kind of war, which may destroy any country, can compel any country to surrender its sovereignty, or it may be used in many other ways also. Therefore in the Indian scenario, we need to make efforts to achieve technological heights, so that we can stand parallel to rest of the developed world.

Q. 27 Discuss various types of cyber crime and preventive measures thereof.
Ans. Cyber crime is a crime done with use of Information and communication technology. With the developing technology, crime is also increasing creating new challenges for the countries, its has now became the latest kind of crime, which is real but intangible, with many new challenges for the crime controllers and also it has increased and become common now a days.

Therefore, while using this technology we need to know what the types of it are and how it is being used and also need to take some preventive measures, so that we should not become victim of cyber crime- SPAM- it’s a method of sending unwanted commercial e-messages in bulk, therefore to prevent from it don’t open such spam messages and delete it all, without reading. PHISHING-it’s a method of obtaining sensitive data like passwords, by impersonating reputed entities, therefore we must be knowing that trustworthy entities like banks etc never ask us to disclose our passwords and other sensitive information, so we should keep such information undisclosed to anyone in any circumstances.

SPOOFING- falsifying data, it means what it is looking like is not that, it is something else. For example-any sender emails you for a job and asks you to click any link given there, it make result in indirect download of virus, as the link may take you to the unwanted page, in this way the virus may get infiltrate into your system and may destroy it slowly. Therefore you should not open such mails from unknown sources and should not click any such link without verifying the sender. You must report your internet service providers for this.

PIRACY- intellectual property theft, copy of creative works, thus you may secure your data or intellectual property with high security and keep such property registered. SPEAR PHISHING- it’s a method through which sender delivers you a malware infection which is hidden inside the message. Therefore avoid spam messages, mails from unknown and bizarre senders.

D.O.S attack- it’s a method of keeping any computer or network busy and making it unavailable, by flooding it with rapid and continuous large number of requests. Therefore always be prepared for alternatives. Therefore, these are the types of some cyber crimes, and their prevention thereof, although government is trying hard to keep us safe though a national cyber security policy but along with that we all also need to be aware and make others aware about best use of technology and how to be safe on internet.

Q.28 Discuss how GAGAN and IRNSS can be helpful for India’s security.
Ans. GAGAN (GPS-aided geo-augmented navigation) system is an indigenous navigational guide system developed jointly by ISRO (Indian space research centre) and AAI(Airport authority of India) and IRNSS (Indian regional navigation satellite system) is an autonomous regional navigation system, it is designed to provide accurate position information service to users in India as well as the region extending upto 1500 km from its boundary.

It is a network of satellites with total 7 satellites, 3 of which will be geostationary orbit and 4 will be in geosynchronous. This entire 7 satellite network will enable India to achieve navigational purpose on the line of GPS of U.S, although it would be regional but, would be helpful in securing India. These two systems have so many uses like, it can be used in aviation sector, railways, agriculture etc.

there will be two types of services provided by this, one free access for navigation purpose to common citizen and other would be secured access to selected and authorized security agencies. The main purpose is to security of the country, it is capable of accurately positioning upto 10 m above land area and upto 20 m above Indian Ocean.

This can be helpful in maintaining security of the country in following ways-

• Can provide information related to insurgents entering in border areas.

• Can provide position of criminals, will be very helpful in tracking criminals.

• Can locate persons in the remote areas, for example during war, injured soldiers, can be found and treated at time to save their life with the help of this. This need was realized during Kargil war when we requested U.S.A for providing location of our army personnel and it denied, otherwise we would have saved many soldiers.

• Can be helpful in tracing any terrorist activities going on inside the country.

• Can be helpful in tracking any possible attack as it extends upto 1500 km beyond our borders, so that we can destroy the enemies before reaching our borders, or can be prepared for any war like situation.

Therefore in this way these two systems can help ensuring or internal security. 4 of 7 satellites have been already placed in their orbits, very soon this will be completed and we will become independent in navigational facility.

Q.29 Discuss the significance of SAGARMALA project in enhancing our marine security.
Ans. We all know that Mumbai terror attacks of 2008 came in India through sea route, a recent incidence when terrorists were trying again to enter India through sea and were destroyed by India before entering in its water. This puts a question mark to our maritime security. Apart from this, there are many incidences when the giant world powers have tried to dominate the Indian Ocean region.

Here we can see why Indian Ocean is strategically important, it is because it is the busiest water transport route, it carries third of world’s oil shipments, containers and so on. Thus it strategically becomes important for those countries, whose energy imports passes through this route like China, U.S.A that is why they always want to dominate the region.

China’s string of pearls theory can be seen in this regard, China has tried hard to surround India along its maritime border, whenever china enters the small countries around Indian Ocean in the name of infrastructure development it becomes a matter of concern for India. Recently China’s maritime silk route project, china Pakistan economic corridor project, infrastructure development agreements with Srilanka and Maldives, have worried India for its maritime security, in this scenario Indian government came with, SAGARMALA project, which stands for “ security and growth for all in region”.

It was initiated by our Prime minister during the launch of offshore patrol vessel MCGS Barracuda in Mauritius. In a deep sense SAGARMALA project is a single coin with two faces, it’s a proactive and farsighted step keeping in mind the future of our security, that’s why it’s a welcome step. It has been adopted with the aim of enhancing trust and transparency among the Indian Ocean countries, to follow international maritime rules, take care of each others interests, handling maritime issues peacefully, and enhancing maritime cooperation.

For this Prime minister invited Sychelles and Maurtius to join existing maritime security agreement. It was aimed shaping India’s security. Although this project was launched without referring to the security concerns, and was initiated for cooperation in the region but its hidden purpose can be understood that it was aimed to keep its relations good with countries in Indian Ocean, so that these countries should not provide their land, to the giants for making their naval bases in Indian Ocean and should remain loyal towards India. In this way this project was mainly aimed at ensuring our future maritime security.

Q.30 As our Apex court has recently acknowledged the need of police modernization and police reforms in India, Suggest major reforms to be adopted.
Ans. Police institution is not new in India; it is India since 1860, when our laws IPC and Crpc were introduced. Although they are not new but their challenges are new, with the development of world, their challenges have increased, nature and area of crime has increased. With the modern era, modern crime have come, therefore our police should also be modernized with human interface and citizen friendly, this was also acknowledged by our supreme court, in the landmark case of Prakash Singh Vs Union of India 2006.

in this regard Sorabjee committee was made to recommend police reforms, in the light of which these are various reforms to be adopted-

• Head count ratio of Police personnel and population should be maintained as per the need, with modern artilleries and updated technology. Appropriate communication and transportation facilities, should be given to the police personnel. Director General of police should not be a political post.

• Police personnel should be given immunity from transfer and postings for a fixed period of time in normal circumstances as is it is given to civil servants.

• A police complaint authority is needed where problems of police personnel and their family should be taken care of.

• Interstate police collaboration is needed.

• Police is currently a subject under state list; it may also be shifted to concurrent list, as the collaboration of centre and states is needed.

• Image of police has negated gradually, need is to correct their image, so that common people should not have fear. Human interface of police is needed and they should be trained for adopting citizen friendly behavior.

• Women should also get place in police system, to deal with sensitivity towards crime against women. For this purpose, many initiatives has been already taken by the government like MHA has already initiated the task of increasing head count from 1.3 to 2.6 per 1000 population.

SWAT (Special weapon and tactics) wing of police is well equipped with modern tactics, which is already working in Delhi, Mumbai and Shillong. SMART policing, CCTNS project, NATGRID, E-courts, E-prison, E-Fir and E-hospitals, are all being worked upon for police reforms purpose. The need of the hour is effective and successful implementation of such initiatives.

Q.31 Discuss the preparedness of India in ensuring its internal security against conventional crime and also mention, how it is preparing itself to combat cyber crime.
Ans. When we talk about conventional preparedness of India, it has recruited various combat forces, which have their own purposes of establishments. There are federal and state police in the country which safeguard the areas under their ambit. States have their own police force to fight day to day crimes in happening in their ambit.

Federal police have various forces established purposefully; these various forces are divided in two groups as below – 1) Paramilitary forces- Assam rifles, Establishment 22 or SFF (Special frontier force), Indian coastguard, SPB (sagar Prahari Bal) and NSG (National security guard).
2) Central armed police force- CRPF (central reserved police force), CISF (Central industrial security force), BSF (Border Security force) and ITBP (Indo-Tibetan border police). Other than police force we various Intelligence agencies, like RAW (Research and analysis wing), IB (Intelligence Bureau) and CBI (Central bureau of investigation).

Their name itself suggests their purpose; they have proven their worth whenever they have been asked to do so. They have shown the strength of country every time, whether it was Indo-Pakistan war in 1965 or Indo-Pakistan war of 1971, Kargil war, Operation black thunder, operation blue star, operation mouse trap, or Patna and Gaya blast investigation.

They have proven their worth. Along with that we have achieved technological preparedness also, whether it is Nuclear weapon, which we tested successfully through operation smiling Budhha in Pokharan Rajasthan in 1998-99. We have equipped our all three wings of army with technological equipments, like Brahmos supersonic cruise missile, AGNI-V, canister based ICBM, various fighter planes and warships, etc.

Further, when we talk security in cyberspace, we have amended IT act in 2008, to address various types of cyber crimes and to prescribe punishment for that, have initiated program to develop cyber forensics, particularly cyber forensic tools, setting up of infrastructure and training with necessary inputs for police and judiciary to deal with cyber crimes, CDAC (centre for development of advance computing) and CERT-IN are together developing cyber forensic tricks and training modules to collect, analyze and present digital evidences in case of crime.

A national cyber policy with aim of creating secure computing environment and enabling trust among all stakeholders has been introduced. In this way India has prepared itself conventionally and technologically to combat various crimes, but still there is a need for more research and development in various fields like, Biotechnology, Information and communication technology, indigenization of defense equipments, and space technology etc, as we are yet highly dependent on technology import in these fields.

Q.32 Explain various kinds of terrorism and its impact on India.
Ans. Definition given by United Nations for terrorism states- “Any kind of violent and non- violent action with the intention to challenge the existing socio-political order or the sovereignty of a given state by using common public, mega establishments or any such thing of strategic significance as means is called Terrorism. In general, following are the types of terrorism- Ethno nationalist terrorisms, this terrorism emerges for the purpose for ethnicity.

These groups come together for fulfilling the ethnic demands, for example-

Liberal tigers of Tamil ellum (LTTE) of Srilanka, Khalistan and ULFA in India. Ideology based terrorism, this terrorism emerges due to the acceptance and following of any ideology. Like- left wings, right wings and moderates in India. Naxalism and Maoists taking terror form are the left wing extremists.

Religion Based Terrorism, emerges as radicalization of any religion evolves, it may Islamic Terrorism, Hindu terrorism, Christian Terrorism. For example-Taliban, Al-Qaeda, Islamic state, Lashkar-e-taiba, etc. Narcotic Terrorism, the terrorism groups which are involve in drugs.

Cyber Terrorism, performing terror activities using information and communication technology. Biological Terrorism Spread of terrorism with the use biotechnology. Above are the various types of terrorism, it has a deep impact on India, we have seen various forms of terrorism taking place in our country, we have been dragged down because of terror attacks, our economy has crippled because of it, our unity and integrity has been effected, communal harmony is at the sake, India faced many terror attacks in past and recently also we faced many attacks, like 1993 Mumbai serial blasts, Indian parliament attack 2001, Delhi attack 2005, 2006 Mumbai train bombings, 2006 Malegaon bombings, 2007 Samjhauta express bombings, 2008 Mumbai attack, 2013 naxal attack in darbha valley, Gurdaspur attack 2015. etc.

Not only this there is along list of attacks on India. The regions mainly attacked are Jammu and Kashmir, Delhi, and Punjab in northern India, Gujarat and Maharashtra in western India, affected with terrorism. East-central, south-central India and eastern most seven states are affected by naxalism. It impacts our economic system, social system and also our political system.

Q.33 What do you understand by Internal security. Explain.
Ans. “ Security against threats faced by a country within its national border, either caused by inner political turmoil, or provoked, prompted by any agency or an enemy country perpetrated by such groups which are using a failed, failing, or weak state, causing insurgency, terrorism or any other subversive acts, that target innocent citizen, cause animosity between and among group of citizens and communities, destroy or attempt to destroy, public and private establishments”. Further, internal security of any country depends upon its three pillars, as strong these pillars would be, as secure, safe and happy the country will be.

Its first pillar is Prevention, any country needs to take some preventive steps in order to reduce crime, and it includes appropriate law enforcement and good intelligence agencies and personnel.

Second pillar is cure, it might be possible that even after enough prevention, some incidents happen, for such situation our entire system should be prepared enough to face it and to mitigate its losses and we should also be characterized by resilience.

Third pillar is long terms solutions, are needed to save the unity and integrity of country, so that no one should develop feeling of alleviation and separatism, for this we need to create a favorable atmosphere in the country with appropriate institutional development. Ethos of inclusive growth is needed, whether it is social, economical, cultural, financial, or regional inclusiveness.

Therefore, the need in the country today is to make strong our three pillars on which our internal security stands, because if even one pillar falls, it would be disastrous to the country. Especially in the present scenario, we can see the weakening of our pillars, there is increase in the fundamentalist’s activities, which is rather not good for our communal harmony. Along with prevention and cure, this long term solution also needs to be paid attention.

Q.34 Discuss the role of media in maintaining the internal security of the country.

Ans. The role of media in internal security was quested first during Mumbai attacks of 2008, which is one and only blots on worthiness of NSG, but there was a role of media in it, media was showing every minute live telecast of the operation against terrorists, which helped terrorists to know the every minute activity of NSG, and therefore some of them succeeded to evade.

Although media denied it in the name of its freedom of speech, thought and expression, as it is one of most important pillars of democracy, but we should not forget that our Fundamental rights are not absolute, they have some reasonable restrictions too, there are restrictions imposed for the sake of internal security of India, for unity and integrity of India, for the law and order situation of India. Therefore media a strong pillar of democracy needs to be accountable and responsible towards its citizenry, especially when there is a question of internal security of India.

Again the role of media was in news during a recent earthquake in Nepal, where in the grieved situation there was race among news channels to expose the news for their TRP. When there is a lot debate over role of media we need to think, it cannot be denied that media stands as one pillar of democracy, and without it democracy is of no use, people are provided every minute information that what is going on in the country, it keeps them aware of all potential threats and helps them to prevent themselves during such situations, but it should also be kept in mind that along with citizen, the terrorists are also watching news, which can help them know secretes of our operations, which can help them evade.

Therefore, there should be clear guidelines for media that upto where they can enter, especially during security operations and grieved situations, there should limitations set for them. The reporters should be sensitized and provided training that how to behave and act in different situations, they should be realized that they also have some responsibilities and accountability towards citizen and government both. Therefore the need of the hour is clear guidelines by government for the role of media in such situations.

Q.35 What are the objectives of National cyber security policy 2013 of India. Discuss its important strategies.
Ans. Although computers have entered India in 1980’s but before 2013 India was not having any cyber security policy. It was adopted in the wake of information given by a Whistle blower Edward Snowden, who leaked the information that U.S.A is spying on Indian users, as there is a lack of any cyber policy.

Then under pressure government of India with the help of Diety (department of electronics and information technology) and ministry of information and communication technology opted for initiating a cyber security policy, with an integrated approach with legal, technical and administrative steps. Its objectives are to protect information and its infrastructure in cyberspace build capabilities to combat cyber crime, mitigate losses of cyber crime through a combination of institutional structure, people, processes, technology and cooperation.

Strategies will be-

• To provide a secure cyber ecosystem in the country.

• Create an assured security policy framework with compliance to global security standards.

• Strengthen regulatory framework for cyberspace.

• Create a 24*7 mechanism for information generation related to cyber crimes.

• Establishing infrastructure for testing and validation of security of information and communication technology products.

• Create workforce for this, with skilled professionals through capacity building, skill development and training.

• To enable protection of information while in process, handling, storage and transit.

• To enable effective prevention, investigation and prosecution of cyber crime.

By- Trilok Singh and Dr. Ravi.

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