Has BJP’s Kashmir Policy failed completely? Why is India unable to solve J&K Issue?

(The writer is Student with, Faculty Of Social Science, DU, New Delhi, India.)

Trilok Singh, Indian Army has decided to go hard and harsh for anti national people. We can’t say that, Modi’s Kashmir policy failed completely while, Modi’s kashmir Policy had been a very successful today. The Recent Steps which is taken by the Indian Army and ISRO (SAARC Satellite) is really Creative in nature. We never wants any other countries interference over J&K and its issue and also we know that Indian Army have ability to confront terrorist or so called Pakistani terrorist including Anti-National Peoples.

But the droppings of ISIS Flags in J&K, really becomes, both, Internal and External Security threats of India so we need to get rid about the same… For India it is strictly a bilateral affair between India and Pakistan and there is no role for any third party in this issue. There have been attempts by countries such as US to intervene and try to find a solution but India resisted those efforts and is not going to change its position….

However, The police are looking into a militant’s body being draped in an ISIS flag at his funeral procession in J&K. Pictures are up on social medias sites of Sajid Ahmad Gilkar’s body being draped in the flag of the terror group and being taken in a procession to his home in the Malaratta area of the city. Gilkar was killed, along with two other militants, in the Redbugh area of Budgam during an overnight encounter with our security forces, on July 13, 2017.
Recently, The kashmir people in fact the people who where responsible for creating instability feel it has failed, but it’s entirely opposite. Going into discussion, what was the point in just offering good scheme for development, when people shout anti National slogan. Healing touch for whom? Those who shout anti National slogan! So finally a right step taken…

In the recent Context of Amarnath terrorist attack, We (the people & the government) knew that there was an intelligence alert by the agency. If we fail to act against these terrorists even when we have such warnings, then it’s a lapse on our part. The Dy CM of J&K said that the bus was allowed to pass the check points after the designated hours, so we know it is the lapse on the part of the government who accepts it frankly and will likely be investigating it. I mourn the death of the pilgrims and am deeply saddened for the loss of their relatives, but if we don’t act on time, there may be more serious losses in future.

Dr. Ajay Gudavarthy wrote a article on Deccan Herald, “What is BJP’s Kashmir policy?”, July 01, 2017, Which critically indicates the BJPs policies on Kashmir. Further he argued that, Kashmir has remained in the headlines for the last two years. It began with the killing of Burhan Wani, followed by surgical strikes, attacks in Uri (and Pathankot in neighbouring Punjab), the house arrest of Pervez Khurram and increased stone pelting.

If the issue survives and keeps hogging the headlines, will it be the contentious issue on which the BJP will fight the general elections in 2019? Kashmir is one issue that holds a pan-India appeal and a chronic crisis in the Valley and a growing threat of its secession from India will create the anxiety that can consolidate the support for the BJP.

Further, Kashmir is an emotive issue that has the potential to sideline all other issues including that of development, growing unemployment and inflation, dipping GDP and the agrarian crisis. It is an issue that combines nationalism with communalism and is in line with BJP’s anti-Muslim mobilisation that seems to have yielded results in UP, Gudavarthy on Deccan Herald

Singh, India is trying everything. Indian govt. gives 10% of Central funds with only 1% of population, Modi announced Rs.80,000 crore package for J&K, whenever Kashmir devastated by flood – Indian Army wades into freezing water, promoted tourism by inaugurating India’s longest Tunnel in Jammu, etc but Pakistan funded Hurriyat netas do not want the peace. They are the actual reason behind the Kashmir issue.
Significantly, The extremely emotional narratives surrounding the Indian military – this hardly leaves any room for a government to bring down the tensions. Loss of soldiers is extremely saddening and the sacrifice should be commended, but India is bigger than the lives of the soldiers (not just soldiers, but lives of the individuals comprising the Indian society). It is in India’s self interests to solve the Kashmir issue, and launching a war as revenge for the loss of few lives is extremely asymmetric.
 

More Significantly, Kashmir is the home of the highest battleground in the world, many rivers originate from there, Kashmir for India acts as a front against both Pakistan and China and also the Karakorum highway and silk route pass through Kashmir. Further, There are many other things that are associated with Kashmir and since Pakistan can’t have it they started creating disturbances based on the very tool of religion. In the name of religion they became a bit successful in creating differences amongst the people and what we call “Kashmir issue” came into place.

It is a combination, The nature of the Indian political system – having the presence of numerous of opposing political groups or so called Anti-national or left wing groups makes it difficult for one to go with a solution. Further, The role of the ever louder and incitement-laden media sounding the alarms, many of which turn out of to be completely false…
Furthermore, The main reason we are actually facing the issues with this part of India is that Pakistan is aware of the strategic importance of the place and they know they cannot take Kashmir from India by any means in any amount of time. So, the only thing can be done there would be to create disturbance in the place at such an extent that they can actually benefit from it.

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Why is India unable to solve the Kashmir issue?

India-centric foreign policy of Pakistan: A key underlying driver of Pakistan’s foreign policy has been a desire for parity with India. It strives to bring artificial parity with its much larger eastern neighbor. It believes that Kashmir issue can be solved after it achieved military parity with India. In its quest for artificial parity with India it has conducted nuclear tests as response to India’s nuclear test. With both countries having enough nuclear arsenal to inflict irreparable damage on each other,theoretically the MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction) principle of cold-war era should be applicable to sub-continent. This development should have sealed the LoC as permanent border. But Pakistan’s use of non-state actors has complicated the problem. Pakistan views agreeing to LoC as permanent border will amount to agreeing to India’s legitimacy over Kashmir and India’s supremacy. In a country where internal stability is maintained by perpetuating the fear of Indian attack on Pakistan, their elite cannot afford to resolve the conflict permanently.
 
Ideological clash: Pakistan and India have opposing ideologies. If Two-Nation theory is true then Kashmir should belong to Pakistan as it is Muslim dominated area. Even the name Pakistan is considered an acronym referring to five northern regions of British Raj: Punjab, Afghania(NWFP), Kashmir, Sindh and Baluchistan.
Therefore they believe Kashmir to be an integral part of Pakistan and are not ready to accept LoC as the permanent border. At the same time Kashmir has become a symbol as well as test of India’s secularism; it was, as Nehru put it, basic to the triumph of secularism over communal-ism in India. India is not ready to part with India controlled Kashmir and lose its secular credentials.

According to one survey of Kashmiri public opinion, 43% of the total adult population want complete independence for Kashmir. 1% of Azad Kashmir (in Pakistan-administered Kashmir) want to join India compared to 28% in Jammu and Kashmir (in Indian-administered Kashmir). 50% of Azad Kashmir want to join Pakistan compared to 2% in Jammu and Kashmir. 14% of the total population want to make the Line of Control a permanent border.

Solution contain following points:

  1. Maintain the status quo. That mean let the LOC be final accepted international border between India, China and Pakistan.
  2. Remove Article 370: India is Union of states. That means any person can live and purchase bunch of land anywhere in any state. Removing article 370 icebreak the thin line between Indians and Jammu and Kashmiri’s. Remove article 370 will led more business in Jammu and KAshmir. As per one of the estimates Bollywood expend its more expensive branch in J&K.
  3. Free Migration between Indian Administered J&K and Azad Kashmir and POK: This will led migration of those people who believe in Grass is greener in other side.
  4. Reestablishing Kashmiri Pandits: After decades, Kashmiri’s Pandits are still in doomsday. They need settlement with good business and infrastructure in their actual land Jammu and Kashmir.
  5. The first step would be to make the LOC just a line on the Map (Making Border irrelevant). Towards this end it was decided that cross-LOC travel n trade would be freed up.
  6. The second step would b to strengthen local self government on both ides of LOC, so that people elect their own government, if necessary under international supervision.
  7. If all this worked and peace was restored, then the fourth and final element of peace formula would be the “agreed withdrawal” of troops on both sides.
  8. If all this worked and peace was restored, then the fourth and final element of peace formula would be the “agreed withdrawal” of troops on both sides.. etc..
I personally feel that if we want to create peace then something’s should be changed with the basic structure of Kashmir. People should be made educated about what actually is going on. Kashmiris have to rise from the blanket of religion and hate and see what actually is good for them. Till the time these efforts are not made no significant change can come…
The real work towards a solution is progressing, but it is far removed from the Kabuki theatre in which both sides frequently engage in. It is usually the arena of the plebeians, and as long as it doesn’t infringe the real work being done, progress is made. There have been very few masters of the political game in India who have occupied the throne in Delhi – which explains why there has been such a small move towards a solution in Kashmir. Although time will tell how much work gets done under the Prime Ministership of Modi, but I am quite optimistic, for he seems to be a master long having mastered the art of the politics.

Conclusion

From the beginning Modi’s foreign policy seems to have stressed on reaching out to the South Asian neighbours. There is a huge difference in Modi’s approach in dealing with Pakistan and that of the previous NDA Govern-ment. The latter reached out to political parties and policy-makers in the country to shape a coherent Pakistan policy. Modi’s approach to deal with Pakistan is totally opposite and is considered to be more of a personalised diplomacy. There is no doubt he has been able to reshape India’s Pakistan policy in terms of engaging with the neighbour on its own terms but this should not be read as Pakistan being compelled to give into pressures from India. India-Pakistan relations have always been tumultuous from the inception and the issues cannot be solved without coherent strategies from both sides.
There is a need on the part of the Modi Government to spell out clearly its Pakistan policy and reach out to various sections to evolve a result-orientated policy-perspective. There have been many ups and downs in India-Pakistan relations under the Modi Government till now. The most important development was the revival of the comprehensive bilateral dialogue to resolve issues through discussions. The challenge will now be to keep terror and talks separate and not let a Pathankot-like incident hijack the whole Indo-Pak relations. At the moment the fate of the renewed bilateral dialogue has again become uncertain and it will be interesting to watch how Modi comes out of this dilemma to walk the talk….
(The writer is Student with Faculty Of Social Science, DU, New Delhi, India.)

Cyber Security and concept of bad bank?



The Idea of bad bank in India

Indian banking sector is back in national and international news, but for all the wrong causes. Bank and financial Institutions (FIs) across the world are reeling under huge financial stress due to some bad loans and default by various borrowers, especially by big borrowers. The supreme court of India has also highlighted this issue by asking RBI to reveal the name of 57 big defaulters, with their total debt amounting of Rs. 85000 crores.

To address the issue of NPAs and to ease the Financial burden of Bank and Financial Institutions across India, the Ministry of finance in Consultation with RBI has proposed an idea of setting up of a Bad Bank which will exclusively deal with the problem of NPAs.

Concept of Bad Bank

The concept of Bad Bank was pioneered at the mellon Bank in 1988 (Now merged with Bank of New york) in response to problems in the bank’s commercial real-state portfolio. The concept of Bad Bank also applied in previous banking crises in Sweden, France and Germany in the early 1990s.

A “Bad Bank” is a bank or some type of Financial Institution that buys and holds all the “bad” or toxic assets from bank and financial Institutions which have stopped earning interest. Such bad loans are then sold to the highest bidder in the market. Bad bank when backed by the government, gains creditworthiness and reliability among investors thereby attracting them to invest in such schemes. It will buy NPAs from banks and FIs to free up their stressed balance sheet. It will further help bank and FIs in creating space for fresh lending which will eventually help them in asset creation thereby mobilizing economy.

What is the modus operandi of such Bad Bank?

  1. They can try to seize the assets pledged by the borrower and sell them in the market. This may incur losses on such loans as the assets have to sold at huge discount.
  2. Under the RBI’s Strategic Debt Restructuring (SDR) scheme, they can covert their loans into equity, acquire a majority stake in the firms, dislodge the promoters or management and bring in new promoters and management. However, Indian Banks lack experience and expertise in running businesses and management till such time as new promoters are found.
  3. Banks can restructure the loans for the borrowers. This involves stretching out the period of payment, or waiving  a portion of the loans, or reducing interest rate on loans, or some combination of these. Such restructuring often results in loss to the bank. However, in such restructuring schemes, PSBs may be accused of favouring certain borrowers which may invite action from investigating agencies. This will further lead to paralysis in functioning of such banks.
  4. Banks can sell their NPAs at a discount to an Asset Restructuring Company (ARC). This again involves a significant loss on loans when the transaction is made but it has the benefit of getting NPAs off the books.

What are the various issues in selling NPAs to bad Bank?

If the private investors have majority stake in bad bank, then they will try to Buy NPAs from PSBs at least possible rate. In such scenario, PSBs may be accused of selling loans too cheaply to private players in the market. Loans granted by PSBs to various investors have become NPAs. Some of these NPAs belong to viable projects and some to non-viable projects. Viable projects are those which are sruck at different stage of clearance due to external factors totally unrelated to the project themselves like problem in land acquisition, environmental clearance etc. with restructuring and additional funding, viable projects can be completed. It will ease up the financial pressure  on banks and allow credit expansion and growth. Bad bank should mostly be confined to non-viable projects whose economic feasibility and returns seems impossible.

Will bad bank make the PSBs look good?

The bad bank proposal is a variant of the 4th option. The Idea is to transfer NPAs of bank to the bad bank for further conversion into performing assets. The bad bank will manage these NPAs as per need. some may be liquidated, some way be restructured and others may be sold off at discounted rates.


Getting NPAs off the books will ease bank’s routine work and also help them attract new business instead of focusing on recoveries which will be done by such bad bank. However, if bad bank is set up as another government owned bank, then it will amount to transferring the problem from one part of the government to another.

Bad bank will be subject to the same regulations and constraints with respect to managing. NPAs and may encounter same hindrances in its operations as faced by other government sector bank. Also, a government entity may not be very willing to hire specialists from the market.

Way forward

The issue of bad loan or NPAs should be addressed structurally as the problem has various dimensions. Procedural actions to grant loans and their recovery should be taken in clear and strict terms as codified, and without discriminating between various stakeholders in the market. There shall not be any special favour either in granting loans or in their recovery to corporates or Industries taking bigger loans (running into thousands of crores) as compared to individuals or farmers taking meager loans for their day to day activity. Many industries and corporates are given loans based on their brand value or trademark which acts as their collateral. These practices are economically unsustainable because in case of default, the brand value itself takes a dip when an industry is reeling under huge losses.

Resolution of bad loans and restoring the health of PSBs is among the biggest challenges the economy faces today. it’s a challenge that requires a response on multiple fronts. The idea is to convert the NPAs to ‘Performing assets” for which pillars of sound banking finance needs to be strengthened. A bad bank is definitely one of the solution, but not the only solution to achieve desired result.

Security Breach at the Indian banks

Cyber security has been identified as one of the key areas of development, but the recent data breach at 19 Indian banks that led to more than 32 lakh debit cards being blocked or recalled is a wake-up call for the banking industries.

The probe by National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) found a malware-induced security branch (detected in yes Bank, India’s fifth-largest private sector bank), in the systems operated by Japanese firm “Hitachi Payment Services”, which provides ATMs, point of sale and other services in India.

Malware is malicious software including viruses, worms, trojans, ransomware, spyware and other programmes that damages computer system at ATM or bank server, and allows fraudsters to access confidential debit card data.

Other ATM Frauds: such as “Card swapping” (at merchant establishments), keypad jamming at ATM centers (by blocking enter and cancel button) and Skimming (device is planted in the ATM’s debit card slot, which is able to read the information on the card’s magnetic tape) are the other common practices.

Liability: According to the RBI’s draft circular on customer protection, a customer is not liable for a 3rd party branch, or where negligence or fraud is on the part of bank, if the customer informs the bank about the fraud within 3 working days of after receiving a communication from the bank on any unauthorized transaction.

What are the step taken by Government Of India?

Since most of the cards at risk are not chip-based, banks are planning to replace them with chip-based ones. The Council of payment card industry data security standard (PCIDSS), an international body that sets data security standard, has ordered a forensic audit of the data branch in India.

Banks has issues Do’s and Don’ts instruction for customers, such as don’t share or disclose PIN to other, Check transaction alert SMSs and bank statements frequently etc.

Recently, RBI issued instruction on a cyber-security framework in banks, asking them to put in place :

  1. Board-approved cyber security policy
  2. Prepare a cyber-crisis management plan
  3. Make arrangement for continuous surveillance
  4. The cicular also asked bank to share unusual cyber security incidents with RBI.

RBI has setup an expert panel on IT Examination and cyber security incidents in banks cyber security initiatives. Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) is also working closely with the reserve bank of India to enhance financial sector security.

A Cyber security task Force is launched by National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM) and Data Security  Council of India (DSCI). The aim of task force is to build India as a global hub for providing cyber security solutions, developing cyber security research & Development (R&D) plan and develop a skilled workforce of cyber security experts.

Our Research Analysis

On the one hand, Digital India program and cashless economy is a priority for government where as On the other hand, it is full of challenges for the cyber security and Internal Security of India?

We believe that, A safe and secure banking system is vital for Development, prosperity and economic growth and the sector is being called upon to ensure effective management of the threat. So, there is a need for banks to start educating their employees and customers to prevent the cyber threats.

A successful online attack could causes significant financial, operational and reputational harm to firms, as well as potentially threatening the stability of the financial system. Whilst Bank have developed some of the most sophisticated risk mitigation capabilities, the threats are evolving rapidly and often have international dimensions.

Thus, a genuinely strategic approach at all level i.e. Individual staff, customer, organizational, National and International level is needed to overcome these kind of challenges.


Internal Security (IS) General Study III Mains : Model Questions and Answers

Internal Security Model Questions and Answers

Q.1 Explain why instability in Afghanistan is a matter of concern for India. How do you see the removal of U.S combat forces from Afghanistan in this connection?
Ans. Afghanistan is not a neighboring country of India but still it posses a strategic importance for it, although it seems far from India, but it is very closer to it in terms of security. It is considered that a democratic and sovereign authority in Afghanistan can serve the interest of Afghanistan people and can also serve the purpose of long term peaceful engagement of India with Afghanistan. India’s wants long terms engagement with Afghanistan in two major areas one is development assistance and the other is strategic interest.

Apart from this India is also concerned about its Diaspora working there. Further if any civil war is broken there its heat will be no doubt felt by India.

Thus political instability in Afghanistan has always remained a matter of concern for India and will remain in future also. Since Ashraf Ghani has taken charge of afghan authority and U.S has kept its combat forces in Afghanistan to control the Taliban, there has been remained peace, law and order.

But as soon as U.S declared in December last year that it is going to end its combat mission, there were questions raised on the capability of Afghan army and also there were assumptions that Taliban and other extremists groups can become active in future . For controlling this Ashraf Ghani has sincerely indulged in peace negotiations with Pakistan for not encouraging terrorism since it has taken charge, as the section of leaders of Taliban are under direct control of Islamabad intelligence.

Now when U.S has removed its forces, such assumptions are proving to be true, Taliban has attacked Afghanistan and has captured a capital of one of its province, it is not difficult for them to capture other areas. This attacks are also showing that Pakistan has does nothing to curb terrorism; all peace negotiations are showing failed results.

It is known to Pakistan only that what it wants whether to transform the regime by Taliban or an occasion of civil war. Therefore, it is matter of concern for India, in all the cases whether Taliban controls the authority or a civil war is broken, and the removal of U.S combat forces was a key factor for again creating instability in Afghanistan.

Q.2 ‘Recent breakthrough with the largest armed group although is a landmark agreement in securing peace in north eastern region, but it is not going to curb all the challenges there’. Discuss those challenges in peace agreements with such insurgency groups and the threats to internal security thereof.
Ans. NSCN (IM) and NSCN (K) and other insurgency groups are active in the north east region of India creating problems in law and order situation of the area. This region is vulnerable to such activities since independence and so far, it has also remained a major problem for government in maintaining its security, unity and integrity of India. People of north east region are also suffering a lot because of this, this region has been mostly controlled by military actions yet, thus initiating peace talks with such insurgency group is definitely a landmark step in securing peace there.

Despite considering this agreement as a landmark, there remain some challenges unsolved. First of all the major factor is that, only NSCN (IM) has taken part in peace agreement, another major faction of it NSCN (K) which is hostile to its decision and other small insurgency groups has not taken part in this negotiations, they remained out of the peace process, in fact opposed NSCN (IM) for taking part in it. It has developed feeling of separatism in non participatory groups, which can be seen in the actions of NSCN (K), when they tried to show their opposition and capabilities by attacking army personnel.

So, it cannot be considered as an inclusive peace agreement as many groups are still out of its ambit. Further, increasing the feeling of separatism in non participant groups, government has kept the agreement a secret, the provisions of agreement are yet not disclosed. There is no clarity on negotiations made my NSCN (IM) , whether they are accepted or not, specially the demand of sovereignty and Nagalim or Greater Nagaland, which included territories of Manipur, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh. If this has been considered it is going to create more distress in the region.

Therefore, the need of the hour is including all groups in peace talks, along with the states which can be effected, further providing them autonomy and sovereignty to take decisions about their lives, without any compromise with India’s sovereignty and integrity. Despite the challenges this agreement can be taken as an opportunity and further steps can be taken for more comprehensive, inclusive and conclusive agreements.

Q.3 Do you see death penalty as an instrument of deterrence for terrorists? Despite the fact that some people also believe it is counter productive. State your views in this regard and also suggest measures to restrict the terrorist activities with the help of psychological methods.
Ans. This argument was invoked after the execution of Yakub Menon, a prime terrorist convicted and executed for Mumbai blast of 1993, by TADA court. The question here is not that, whether this execution was fair or not, it was no doubt a fair and unbiased trail as per the laws prevailing, he was also given every opportunity to prove himself, but the final decision after every appeal and petition was his execution, there was no injustice done. The question here is whether it is deterrence for other terrorist, which can stop them from indulging in such activities. Some people find death penalty as deterrence while some believe it is counter productive.

In fact many countries have removed death penalty from their criminal laws, but it is still prevailing in Indian criminal laws i.e IPC and Crpc for murder, waging war and mutiny and under TADA act 1987 (now repealed) and POTA 2002 (repealed) for terrorists, as India is vulnerable to terror attacks. In Bachan singh case, Justice P.N Bhagwati himself has accepted that death penalty under IPC and Crpc for murder is voilative of fundamental rights provided to citizens under article 14 and 21 in Indian constitution, but at the same time he has also mentioned that he is not including terror attacks here, terrorism should be dealt with death penalty. If we look at the mindset of terrorist, if they are indulging in such activities specially suicide bombing, it means that they are psychologically prepared to give their life for their purpose.

Then this question definitely becomes important that whether death penalty can deter them. In fact they become martyr for other terrorists after their death and also encourages other youth for indulging into this. They become role model. If we are giving them death penalty then we are not going to curb terrorism its just an act of revenge, in fact further we are invoking them for retaliation attacks. On the other side if we are not priding them death sentence we can try to get information about other terrorist from them, this could even more productive in countering terrorism.

Therefore the need is not acting as retaliation, neither removing death penalty but to understand the situation and psychological mindset of terrorists, and even if we are using death penalty, it should be awarded with utmost care. Further the need is to understand and study the psychological mindset of terrorist, reforming them, including the minority sections in growth process, spreading awareness in the youth of country, to stop them being attracted towards terrorism.

 Q.4 ‘On one hand Digital India program is a priority for government whereas on the other hand it is full of challenges for the internal security of India’. Discuss

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