UPSC/IAS Mains: Solved Papers 2017, IASmind.












Section A

Q. Farming has lost the ability to be a source of subsistence for majority of farmers in India.

Ans. Trilok Singh, As we know that, Farms need more than just food. With a Brief outline, started with a quote regarding farmer’s importance, then mentioned briefly current distressing scenario of Indian agriculture, mention farmers plight, mention some statistics of farmers suicides and declining income from agriculture.

Read Also, The Latest Story Of India’s Rural Transformation, Trilok Singh

Further, Main Body : Wrote some paragraphs in detail depicting degrading condition of Indian agriculture sector. Then, write in several paragraphs different reasons for degradation of agriculture sector, for example Irrigation issues, credit issues, marketing / APMC issues, insurance issues, land degradation, climate change, Beef Ban, recent demonetization etc. Moreover, Our agricultural ancestors soon learned that what they couldn’t grow or acquire nearby might be found in the tribe a few miles over- access to water, or better hunting grounds. You might be self sufficient with many aspects of your farm, but at some point you are going to need something from somewhere else if you are going to farm intensively for your own needs.


Further, Subsistence farming depends on labor, and plenty of it. That means you have lots of kids or outside help. Not everyone has access to this manual labor, and outside help may, I say may involve paying a salary. Not everyone wants to work for the collective whole, as Israel’s troubled kibbutz system is showing. If  you need or want cash, then you need to sell something. Otherwise, you are completely outside the cash economy, and although this might have worked, say from 500-1500, it’s doubtful we could convince the entire populace to do that…

Q. Impact of new economic measure on fiscal ties between the union and states in India.

Q. Destiny of a nation is shaped by its classroom.

Ans. It may be trite to say that all-round development of our future citizens can be achieved by building a strong foundation in Education the classroom. That it is a unique investment in the present, bearing invaluable benefits for the future. You, dear reader, decide whether or not our collective  efforts (or the lack of these) in this sphere, warrant such denigration or do the outcomes make us proud. A key milestone in India’s march towards Education for all was the adoption of the National Policy on Education 1986 (revised in1992). This has been followed up by the Right to Education Act (RTE) 2009.  Focus has been on universal access and enrolment, retention of children in schools up to 14 years of age and a substantial improvement in the quality of education to enable all children achieve essential levels of learning. The investments in expansion of schooling facilities, bridging gender and social category gaps in elementary education, improving school infrastructure, Mid-day meal programme, etc. have helped in substantially reducing school drop-out rates evidenced by the improved retention rates in primary, upper primary and elementary education.

While, quantitatively, India is inching closer to universal education, the quality of education in government run schools is questionable. 70% of rural Indian children in the age group of 6-14 years go to Govt schools 1. The last ASER (Annual Status of Education Report) 2014 started a nationwide debate on the learning outcomes of children in primary schools.  As per the report, half the children entering middle schools cannot read a Standard 2 level text and only one out of four children can solve an arithmetic sum usually taught in Std 3-4.2

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have helped in bringing out a much needed focus and pressure on basic developmental issues. MDGs originated from the Millennium Declaration adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in September 2000. As per the MDGs, the target is to ensure that, by 2015, every child should complete a full course of primary schooling. As Dr Mishra listed many qualities that make an ideal teacher. “He should be effective, communicative, coordinator, supervisor, articulate creator and more importantly he should become a role model for his pupils. Schools are real breeding ground for the students which shape their future and hence a teacher should try to inculcate courage, conviction and character in the students,”. As part of their CSR initiative, many corporates have spent large amounts on Education.  Unfortunately, a large part of the CSR spend in the education sector is on infrastructure such as building girl toilets (given Government emphasis) and not enough on learning outcomes and pedagogy. Corporates (through CSR) should invest in capacity building of teachers in partnership with NGOs. Some NGOs focus on capacity building of teachers through an ‘integrated teacher education’ program. The programme ensures that teachers are prepared for the classroom through theoretical and practical training. The programme focuses on skills such as school leadership, IT skills, and English proficiency and also covers pedagogy requirements for each subject. STIR Education, another NGO, identifies teachers as change makers and brings them together to initiate change in their own schools and in the broader ecosystem.

Q. Has the Non Alignment Movement ( NAM ) lost its relevance in multipolar world?

Ans. Trilok Singh, In a changing global contemporary scenario, recent NAM meeting was a no show in real terms. The main thoughts behind the above questions may included; Introduction, briefly mentioning background of NAM and the context in which it was setup.. We need to think about the negative and positive context of NAM in a changing times. But with the end of the Cold War, there are no longer two rival blocs to be non-aligned between, and many have questioned the relevance of a movement whose very name signifies the negation of a choice that is no longer on the world’s geopolitical table. As Nehru stated in his address to the United Nations, “where freedom is menaced or justice threatened or where aggression takes place, we cannot and shall not be neutral”. To say it in another way, taking the essence of non-alignment as the assertion of independence in foreign affairs, non-alignment does not become irrelevant at any time.

Moreover, NAM even after so many years of foundation it still abides by its founding principles, idea and purpose i.e. to establish a peaceful and prosperous world. It promotes disarmament and even prohibits invasion of any country, henceforth creating a sovereign world order. NAM compromises of 120 developing countries and most of them being member of UN general assembly. It represents 2/3 members of general assembly hence NAM members act as important vote blocking group in UN. NAM as foreign policy is very much relevant till today even after the disintegration of USSR. Many developing nation including India still follows NAM policy as its major international and foreign policy tool.

Significantly, NAM is emerging as majority day by day, each year its strength increases which act as a force and give its members to put their point on international issues. NAM since its foundation act as a platform that protects the interest of developing countries. It protect it from the huge and influential power in the international sphere, so if disputes arises between developed and developing nation at any point of concerned topic then NAM act as platform which negotiates and concludes disputes peacefully securing the favourable decisions for each member nation.

Section B

Q. Joy is simplest form of gratitude.

Ans. Trilok Singh, This one is a quotation which is coined by Karl Barth, “Joy is the simplest form of gratitude.” A prolific writer, his theology stood as a stark challenge to the prevailing 19th century liberal theology of his day. While some wanted to reshape theology in light of post-enlightenment intellectual advances, Barth emphasized humankind’s utter reliance on God’s revelation – captured ultimately in the person of Jesus Christ – for knowledge of God and reality. Moreover, Barth reflected on joy in the Christian life, and remarked that joy is the first response of thanksgiving to God. I believe we must return to this hopeful sentence today in the Church as we embark on our journey through the world. Joy is a gift from God to the us. Joy flows directly from the eternal essence of God. To be joyful is a response to God, and a definition of how we must be in this world.

In a great article in the December 2009 edition of Christianity Today it states that as Christians we can be found issuing sweeping cultural condemnations, beating ourselves up for our shortcomings, and decrying the decay of the world but we are rarely found calling others to be more joyful. Further, Reflecting back on the Bible joy permeates the pages of the book. It is a hallmark of God’s people, and it is found even more beautifully in the midst of the downtrodden, the broken, and the exiled. We must remember our Messiah came to a broken people, an oppressed country, and lived in joy. He was found laughing, healing, and loving the people he encountered. His harsh words were directed as those who took their position too seriously, and their morality as something they could boast of. It was directed at those who stole joy with legalistic declarations and narcissistic religious elitism. In the midst of the Gospels we see joy ushered in to lives that would seem desperate, and unworthy and joy brought these renewed people together. Joy was the response of the forgiven, the healed, the Greek and the Jew.

Significantly, Joy in the world, because God is near us, and for us. Joy to the world, we are loved regardless. Joy to the world the Prince of Peace will end all wars. Joy to the world, God will end all oppression and set the prisoner free. Joy to the world, we are one humanity. Joy to the world every tear will be wiped away. Joy is simple, joy is God’s.

Q. Fulfillment of ‘ New Woman ‘ in India is a myth.

Ans. Tarun IAS Aspirants, Started with a quote on relevance of women, then briefly wrote about changing condition/ life of women in India in context of ‘New Woman‘. In the main body, first wrote about positive changes, showed how it is not a myth wrote in detail, in several paragraph about changing scenario for women in India, increase in literacy, gave examples like UPSC toppers, representation in politics, women in business, film industry, overall improvement. Then mentioned negatives, showed how its a myth like, though overall representation in politics has increased but still low and many are doing biding for their husbands, write about low workforce participation, about increasing crimes against women etc then gave some suggestions and mentioned government’s initiatives. Concluded positively.

Q. We may brave human laws but cannot breach natural laws

Ans. We may brave human laws, but we cannot resist natural ones. Coined by Jules Verne. Under Moderation.. Please visit after sometimes.

Q. ‘Social Media’ is inherently a selfish medium.

Its a pamdyer quotes as told us Andrew Kucheriavy. Social Media is the communication and marketing platform we cannot live without. … “Social media is inherently a selfish medium.” – Pam Dyer… Trilok Singh, In a such online phase we can’t able to say that, social media is only a selfish medium while it empowers the education and solution method at a large scale now it is easy to find the day today events on social media to. However, number of Businessman, Political parties etc post indicates that the social media are now also becomes a selfish medium in order to achieving own industry, parties goal but as a student we may built a positive think-tank network on Social Media which helps a society at large. Yes, we have also huge drawbacks about the same too. Here, You may highlights the negative as well as positive manners with the effective solutions to get rid about the same…

All The Best of Rest Mains Dear Aspirants.