Answer the following questions in not more than 200 words each. Contents of the answers are more important than their length. All questions carry equal marks.
Note: Each question carries 12.5 Marks (12.5 X 20=250)
1. The ancient civilization in Indian sub continent differed from tse of Egypt , Mesopotamia and Greece in that its culture and traditions have been preserved without breakdown to the present day. Comment.
Ans:- The ancient civilisation was Indus Valley Civilisation. Answer revolves around salient features or uniqueness of Indus Civilisation – Drainage, Town planning, Secular character, script etc. Continuity of culture – Fire worship, Bull worship, Pottery, Social character, Assimilation and accommodative nature etc. The Indian subcontinent is a diverse and fertile region with monsoons, droughts, plains, mountains, deserts, and especially rivers, along which early cities developed in the third millennium B.C. Along with Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, and Mesoamerica, the ancient Indian subcontinent was one of the few places in the world to develop its own system of writing. Its early literature was written in Sanskrit. Read more plz wait..
2. Mesolithic rock cut architecture of India not only reflects the cultural life of the times but also a fine aesthetic sense comparable to modern painting. Critically evaluate this comment.
Ans.Depiction of animals, hunting scenes, the Mesolithic sites have also painting of social life, sexual activity, child birth, rearing of children and burial ceremony. The symmetry of artifacts, evidence of attention to the detail of tool shape, activities etc. In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural stone; it is largely synonymous with parietal art. A global phenomenon, rock art is found in many culturally diverse regions of the world. Indian rock-cut architecture is mostly religious in nature. It has been produced in many contexts throughout human history, although the majority of rock art that has been ethnographically recorded has been produced as a part of ritual.
Such artworks are often divided into three forms:
Petroglyphs, which are carved into the rock surface, pictographs, which are painted onto the surface, and earth figures, engraved into the ground. The oldest known rock art dates from the Upper Palaeolithic period, having been found in Europe, Australia, Asia and Africa. Archaeologists studying these artworks believe that they likely had magico-religious significance.
Singrauliis the 50th district in the state of Madhya Pradesh, which covers a region comprising of the eastern part of the Sidhi district in Madhya Pradesh and the adjoining region in Sonebhadra district in UP. Historically Singrauli belonged to the princely state of Rewa, a part of the Baghelkhad region. Singrauli has a history spanning from the emergence of pre – historic man to the present age of industrialization. It is a region with abundance of natural & mineral resources Due to abundance of mineral resources and thermal power plants it is nicknamed as Urjanchal – the land of energy. While modern industries dominated the region today, the history of Singrauli is as colourful and interesting as is promising future.
The Ajanta Caves in Maharashtraare 30 rock-cut Buddhist temples that span 6 centuries, beginning in the 1st century BCE. They are carved into the vertical side of a gorge located in the hills of the Sahyadri mountains.
Similar to the Barabar Caves, the Ajanta Caves are situated close to main trade routes. A great deal of decorative sculpture—intricately carved columns and reliefs , including cornices and pilaster—are found here. The Ellora caveswere built between the 5
id=”atom_5847_text_superscript_d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e_3″>th and 10th centuries. These caves are made up of twelve Buddhist, seventeen Hindu, and five Jain rock-cut temples, excavated out of the Charanandri hills. etc.
The Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka are a repository of rock paintings within natural rock shelters with archaeological evidences of habitation and lithic industry, from the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods through the Chalcolithic to the Mediaeval period. They are located within the designated Ratapani Wildlife Sanctuary, in an area of abundant natural resources and shelter. The shelters exhibit the earliest traces of human life in India, its rock paintings are among the world’s oldest.
The topmost architectural element of a building, projecting forward from the main walls, originally used as a means of directing rainwater away from the building’s walls. A rectangular column that projects partially from the wall to which it is attached; it gives the appearance of a support, but is only for decoration. A medium used to bind pigments in painting, as well as the associated artistic techniques. There are more than 1,500 rock-cut temples in India, most of which are religious in nature, adorned with decorative paintings and exquisite stone carvings reflecting a very high level of craftsmanship.Bhimbetka is an ideal location to view rock paintings of mesolithic man.People really interested in this part of history ,when visiting bhimbetka , must also visit places around this region where also more such specimens are available within Raisen district. Its worth it.
The Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka are in the foothills of the Vindhyan Mountains on the southern edge of the central Indian plateau. Within massive sandstone outcrops, above comparatively dense forest, are five clusters of natural rock shelters, displaying paintings that appear to date from the Mesolithic Period right through to the historical period. The cultural traditions of the inhabitants of the twenty-one villages adjacent to the site bear a strong resemblance to those represented in the rock paintings.
3. How difficult would have been the achievement of Indian independence without Mahatma Gandhi? Discuss.
Ans:-Philosophy and ideological difference, Change in pattern of Mass participation, Multipolar Movement, Silent revolution in village would have not happened, Reforms within congress organisation would be different.etc… Gandhi learned many things from his south African journey.Tolstoy and pheonixfarms were precursor to Gandhi’s ashrams in India Gandhi learned how to lead masses having diversity including women, student, and various other sections. Gandhi acquired so much emotional intelligent from his movements in south Africa that he got the strength of taking big decisions like to call off NCM at peak period also.. He learned the nerve of masses..Which he employed in Indian scenario.He inspired from several writers John Ruskin Henry D. Theoo. He personally believed in endurance of masses and ability of them in struggles. Until the start of Gandhian phase. Masses in India were partly inducted giving no such preference. But Gandhi inducted masses, especially women. In unprecedented level. Without Gandhi Dictatorship model would have evolved in India. Like that boss.Read more…please wait.
4. Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. B R Ambedkar, despite having divergent approaches and strategies, had a common goal of amelioration of the downtrodden. Elucidate.
Ans.Gandhi methods: centered around untouchability abolition, social accomodation etc. While Ambedkar methods: Social political and economic empowerment, social recognition and participation, democratisation of empowerment etc..
Differences of opinions between Gandhi and Dr.B R Ambedkar:-
1.Ambedkar felt that political freedom or self rule or swaraj would be farce for depressed classes and minorities because self (of self rule) or swa (of swaraj) is vaguely put and not clearly defined. Such self rule will mean domination of caste Hindus with perpetuation of all the oppression and inequalities which the depressed class faces. Hence, protection of the rights of depressed classes and the reformation of Indian(Hindu) society, making it more egalitarian and democratic, was much more needed than transfer of political power. So, Ambedkar felt that social change should precede political change.
2.Gandhi agreed that Indian society is highly inequitable and it needs reformation. But his approach for reformation was very different from Ambedkar.
3.Ambedkar was a vocal critic of caste. He studied and understood caste-how it is determined, how it is perpetuated and how it survives. And, thus based on his understanding, he came to conclusion that caste can’t be reformed. It needs to be annihilated. And Annihilation of caste system will include annihilation of chaturvarna tradition, from where it emanates.
4.Gandhi also detested caste but used to support the chutrvarna tradition based on the logic that it leads to division of labour. He added that division in the varna system should be based on worth and not birth. Further,Gandhi argued that there is need of “self purification” of hindu society and this self purification will happen by innovative Gandhian method of appealing to the conscience of the caste Hindus to identify the miseries of depressed classes and accommodate them. Gandhi use of term ‘’harijan’’ for depressed classes and his fight against untouchability was based on this view.
5.Ambedkar’s main argument with Gandhi was that the Hindu caste system and its inbuilt apartheid were abhorrent to the purposes of placing people on basis of worth rather than birth. He was critical of Gandhian method of “appealing to the conscience” to bring social change or eradicating untouchability as he held the view that caste system, discrimination and domination associated with it is not going to go that easily. Dominant castes with enjoying social power and prestige are not going to give share to their power so easily.
6.This difference in the views between Gandhi and ambedkar regarding caste and emancipation of downtrodden led to their differences in political approach. This gets exemplified in POONA PACT(1932) and afterwards.
“Gandhiji had used non-violent protests to appeal to the “sense of morality” of the oppressor, Dr. Ambedkar believed more in taking recourse to law for fighting oppression against Dalits.” “While Gandhiji made all-out efforts to eradicate untouchability in the Hindu society, he had to balance several causes he was pursuing during the freedom struggle.
In contrast, Dr. Ambedkar had a single cause for devoting his entire energy”,“Gandhiji had used non-violent protests to appeal to the “sense of morality” of the oppressor, Dr. Ambedkar believed more in taking recourse to law for fighting oppression against Dalits. There were some points of convergence between the two great leaders after the signing of the Poona Pact at Yerawada Jail in 1932.”On August 15, 1947, he was inducted as Independent India’s first Law Minister and on August 29 as Chairman of the Constitution’s Drafting Committee. Ambedkar’s wish that the idea of ‘one man one vote’ translating one day to ‘one man one value’ remains an important lodestar for India.
5. It would have been difficult for the Constituent Assembly to complete its historic task of drafting the Constitution for Independent India in just three years, but its experience gained with the Government of India Act, 1935 .Discuss.
Ans:-Autonomy in Provinces, complete responsibility to Indians, Dyarchy in centre, Relation with Governors and Viceroy, Execution of powers by Indians, Role of Parliamentarians. The claim that the Constitutional development in India (1861,1892, 1909, 1919 and 1935) was because of big heart and reforming tendencies of British, and the 1950 constitution was the logical culmination of the steps towards constitutional development taken by British in the past, is somewhat a very exaggerated claim.
The Constituent Assembly took almost three years (2 years, 11 months and 17 days to be precise) to complete its historic task of drafting the Constitution for Independent India. During this period, it held eleven sessions covering a total of 165 days. Of these, 114 days were spent on the consideration of the Draft Constitution. As to its composition, members were chosen by indirect election by the members of the Provincial Legislative Assemblies, according to the scheme recommended by the Cabinet Mission.
The Government of India act 1858 and the Indian council act of 1861, came in the aftermath of 1857 revolt and the British felt that cooperation of some Indians is needed in the administration of the vast country like India. Such a move was thought to (1) bring out Indian expression and grievances which could then be pacified by some incremental changes (while protecting the British interests), (2) co opt some Indians as companions and friends of British rule which would act not only act as brakes to any large scale uprising to British but will also act as “bulwarks” for British if any 1857 type revolt happened.
The arrangement was:
(i) 292 members were elected through the Provincial Legislative Assemblies;
(ii) 93 members represented the Indian Princely States; and
(iii) 4 members represented the Chief Commissioners’ Provinces.
The total membership of the Assembly thus was to be 389. However, as a result of the partition under the Mountbatten Plan of 3 June, 1947, a separate Constituent Assembly was set up for Pakistan and representatives of some Provinces ceased to be members of the Assembly. As a result, the membership of the Assembly was reduced to 299. On 13 December, 1946, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru moved the Objectives ResolutionThe Constituent Assembly took almost three years (two years, eleven months and seventeen days to be precise) to complete its historic task of drafting the Constitution for Independent India. During this period, it held eleven sessions covering a total of 165 days. Of these, 114 days were spent on the consideration of the Draft Constitution.
TheGovernment of India Act 1935 was originally passed in August 1935, and is said to have been the longest (British) Act of Parliament ever enacted by that time. Because of its length, the Act was retroactively split by the Government of India (Reprinting) Act 1935, into two separate Acts:
(1)The Government of India Act 1935
(2)The Government of Burma Act 1935
References in literature on Indian political and constitutional history are usually to the shortened Government of India Act 1935, rather than to the text of the Act as originally enacted.
The most significant aspects of the Act were:
(1)the grant of a large measure of autonomy to the provinces of British India (ending the system of dyarchy introduced by the Government of India Act 1919)
(2)provision for the establishment of a “Federation of India”, to be made up of both British India and some or all of the “princely states”
(3)the introduction of direct elections, thus increasing the franchise from seven million to thirty-five million people.
(4)the establishment of a Federal Court. etc
However, the degree of autonomy introduced at the provincial level was subject to important limitations: the provincial Governors retained important reserve powers, and the British authorities also retained a right to suspend responsible government.
The parts of the Act intended to establish the Federation of India never came into operation, due to opposition from rulers of the princely states. The remaining parts of the Act came into force in 1937, when the first elections under the act were also held. In this act The federal type of Government was selected but when the Act was given then the Indian National Congress opposed it because they wanted the unitary Government.
6. Why did the industrial revolution first occur in England? Discuss the quality of life of the people there during the industrialization. How does it compare with that in India at present times?
Ans.Capital, merchandise, geography, raw materials, scientific revolution, agrarian revolution, commercial revolution. Changes in position of women, child labours, urbanisation, family structure, migration. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain because of the beginning in the 2nd half of the 18th century. By the 1830s the following gains had been made in important technologies:- Textile industry:-Mechanised cotton spinning powered by steam or water greatly increased the output of a worker.,Steam power:-The efficiency of steam engines increased so that they used between one-fifth and one-tenth as much fuel. Iron making:-The substitution of coke for charcoal greatly lowered the fuel cost for pig iron and wrought iron production. Industrialisation of the country can provide the necessary elements for strengthening the economy.
Britain had an abundance of cotton, used in the making of textiles. When the cottage industry and the manufacturing of clothing at home changed to the factory system, new machines were being created. Also, several key-inventors of these machines were from Great Britain and contributed to the factory system being established. Also, efficient transportation was already set up in Britain and it was further innovated with the demand between producers and suppliers.Great Britain also had a lot of natural resources.
Peter Lindert and Jeffrey Williamson, suggest that full-time earnings for British common labourers, adjusted for inflation, more than doubled in the seventy years after 1780. But Charles Feinstein argued that over the same period, British real wages only increased by around 30%. It’s a bit of an academic mess.
Most people agree that after about 1840, real wages did better. Nicholas Crafts and Terence Mills shows that from 1840 to 1910, real wages more than doubled. Their findings are mirrored by other researchers (see below right). Improvements may be due to technological innovation, which led to big increases in labour productivity and hence higher wages. Others reckon it is because the cost of living did not increase so fast. And the massive economic impact of the Napoleonic Wars—where, due to naval warfare, exporters suffered and imports were more expensive—gradually wore off.
So, while the Industrial Revolution ultimately led to big increases in wealth, progress was unsteady. For much of the period, the average person was not reaping the benefits of economic change. So much for wages. Other measures of standard of living should be considered. There is increased enthusiasm for biological measures of standard of living, such as people’s height. Height is a useful measure for a number of reasons. Researchers find height data from different places, including army archives; it is common practice to measure the stature of new recruits. Data can also be found in school records.
1. Raising Income:The first important role is that industrial development provide a secure basis for a rapid growth of income. In the industrially developed countries, for example, the GNP per capita income is very high at around $ 28,000. Whereas for the industrially backward countries it is very low at around $ 400 only.
2. Changing the Structure of the Economy:In order to develop the economy underdeveloped countries need structural change through industrialization. History shows that in the process of becoming developed economy the share of the industrial sector should rise and that of the agricultural sector decline.
3. Meeting High-Income Demands: Beyond certain limits, the demands of the people are usually for industrial products alone. After having met the needs of food, income of the people are spent mostly on manufactured goods.
4. Overcoming Deterioration in the Terms of Trade:Underdeveloped countries like India need industrialization to free themselves from the adverse effects of fluctuations in the prices of primary products and deterioration in their terms of trade. Such countries mainly export primary products and import manufactured goods. The prices of primary products have been falling or are stable whereas the prices of manufactured products have been rising. This led to deterioration in the terms of trade of the LDCs.
5. Absorbing Surplus Labour (Employment Generation):Underdeveloped countries like India are characterized by surplus labour and rapidly growing population. To absorb all the surplus labour it is essential to industrialise the country rapidly.etc.
The industrial development imparts to an economy dynamic element in the form of rapid growth and a diversified economic structure which make it a progressive economy. Industrialisation is needed to provide for the country’s security. This consideration becomes all the more critical when some international crisis develops. In such situation, dependence of foreign sources for defence materials is a risky affair.It is only through industrial development in a big way that the national objective of self-reliance in defence materials can be achieved.
7. To what extend can Germany be held responsible for causing the two World Wars? Discuss critically.
Ans. 1stWorld War:Support Austrian aggression, Balkan crisis, Morocco crisis, militarisation etc. 2nd World War: Invasion into Czech and Poland, Violation of Treaty of Versailles, Guns for butter, steel pacts etc..Colonial expansionism was a factor in that war but all of the major powers again were guilty of that. W.W.2nd they definitely had a major amount of blame for, but not all of it. The way the winners of WW I treated defeated Germany did allot to set the stage for the hate and feeling of need for vengeance to take hold. You need look no further for proof of this than to note that when Hitler defeated France in 1940, he had the original train car used in Versailles where they Germans were made to surrender to the allies used again to have the French have a taste of the humiliation that they were put through.
I think Germany was not responsible at all for World War One.They were allied with Austria,and when Austria invaded Serbia, England and France etc.Declared war in support of their serbian ally. Since Germany had an alliance with Austria, they declared war in return and the whole thing blew up in everyone’s face. World War Two was a different matter, the Germans started that one all on their own, at least the European part.
World War I and World War II are the most brutal and destructive wars that the world has faced in its history. Several countries were involved in the wars and its effects were felt worldwide. While the wars were caused by many different factors, one aspect common to both the wars was the participation of Germany.Role in emergence of alliances The main causes of the First World War include forming alliances, imperialism, militarism and nationalism.
style=”color: #ff6600;”>In each of these long-term causes, Germany played an important role. After the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, Germany became a unified state. It quickly became the largest industrial power in Europe. This changed the balance of power and many of German’s neighbours became nervous.The emergence of alliances was a major cause of the First World War, because it divides the European powers, making them rivals, and countries forced to participate in war if one of his allies were involved in the war, which could turn a small war into a large one.
“Impacts of Weltpolitik foreign policy”In 1890, William II of Germany adopted Weltpolitik foreign policy to meet the colonial aspirations of Germany and created a strong navy and empire abroad. This imperialist policy had a great impact on relations between Germany and other countries and led Germany into conflict with Britain because of colonial conflicts. This increased the tension in Europe even more. In 1897, Germany began construction of new vessels in an attempt to challenge the naval supremacy of Britain, which led to the Naval Arms Race. Britain and Germany both increased sharply their navies, and it created even more tension between countries. Finally, nationalism in Europe also led to war, because it created competition between countries that wanted to prove that they were the best and most powerful. This is especially true for Germany, who wanted to become the largest colonial power and wanted to be better than Britain in all possible aspects. The involvement of Germany in each of the main causes of the First World War is obvious and shows that Germany is largely responsible for the war.
“The Treaty of Versailles”The Treaty of Versailles was created after World War I and it forced Germany to take full responsibility for the war, pay reparations to the Allied Powers, waive a large part of its territory, and to limit its army. Germans regarded the treaty as too harsh and unfair, and they were determined to throw off the shackles it had imposed on them. When Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933, two of its main axes were ending the Versailles Treaty and it started acquisition of more territory for the German people. These two things could not be achieved without causing conflict with other nations. Germany began to invade and annex the territories in Europe, such as Austria, and it also began to re-arm. This was against the Treaty of Versailles. In addition, in 1936, it sent troops into the Rhineland, which was supposed to be a zone “demilitarized,” as per the treaty. The moves of Germany caused tensions in Europe and made other countries very nervous. However, none dared to face it, lest another great war would break out. Since, the Germany faced no opposition; it began to demand more and more from other European countries until they realize that Germany would never be satisfied. It was the persistent requests of Germany, which finally forced Britain and France to declare war and caused the outbreak of the Second World War.
The participation of Germany in the long-term causes of World War IIshows that it is largely responsible for the onset of the war. However, it can also be argued that Britain and France must bear some responsibility for causing the Second World War, not just Germany. This is mainly because they failed to stop Germany in the beginning when they still had the chance. Instead, they decided to follow a policy of appeasement and let Germany to get away with whatever it wanted without any kind of opposition to try to prevent war. Accordingly, Germany has won the trust and dared to do things that otherwise would not dare do, like remilitarization of rhineland.
8. Describe any four cultural elements of diversity in India and rate their relative significance in building a national identity.
India is the birthplace of four of the world’s major religions; namelyHinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. India is a land of diversity in race, region, caste, language, mate, landform, flora and fauna and so on. From ancient time till day India has repaintained this diversity from very ancient time. Mature has shaped the country so. Rightly this land has been termed as “the epitome of the world.” Cultural Diversity The years of foreign rule, religious movements, and spiritual discoveries in the ancient land of India has given way to a rich potpourri of social habits, festivals, and customs. To appreciate the Indian culture, an introduction to the religious heritage of India is necessary. Please see topics on the Bhakti Movement, Hinduism, Festivals, and other Topics on the Indian Culture. India also has a very rich native or tribal culture. See topics on the life of some of the tribes of India at the Tribals of Bastar and Children of the Forest God.
four cultural elements of diversity in India:-
1.Linguistic, Religious, Customs and traditions, social identity etc
2.Arguments lies in relating this concept with nation building.
3.Pluralism concept builds national identity.
4.Understanding each other unique cultural identity leads to cherishing culture thereby building national identity.etc….
Diversity of Clothing and Attire Perhaps India remains the only country where unstitched clothing is still popular. The Saree, Lungi, Dhoti, Turbans are all worn this way. It is the way of wearing it is where the styles differ. Tailored Indian clothing includes Salwar-Kameez, collarless jackets, Kurtas, and western attires for both men and women. Many types of headgear are prevalent in India — these include rumals, topis, and turbans.
The fundamental diversity in India is gleaned from the following:-
India is a vast country with great diversity of physical features. Certain parts in India are so fertile that they are counted amongst the most fertile regions of the world while other are so unproductive and barren that hardly anything car be grown there.
India possesses a rich variety of races. In view of this variety Prof. V.A. Smith says, “From the human point of view India has been often described as an ethnological Dr racial museum in which numberless races of mankind may be steadied.”
India not only possesses racial diversity but also linguistic diversity- It is said that almost 400 languages are spoken in India. Some of the prominent language recognized by the constitution includes, Assamese Bengali, Gujrkti, Hindi, Kannad, Kashmiri, and Malayalam. Marathi, Or Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Terrill, Telgu and Urdu. In fact it is commonly believed that in India the language changes after every four kooks.
Religious and social Diversity:
In the religious sphere also India possesses great diversity. Almost all the principal religions of the world like Brahmanism, Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity are found here. Most of these religions are further sub-divided into various sects and divisions.
The diversity in culture, races, language, religion etc. greatly stood in the way of political unity in India. As a result from the earliest times, India has been divided into several independent principalities. The rulers of these principalities were always engaged in wars with each other for supremacy. This disunity and friction was fully exploited by the foreign invaders to bring India under their subjugation.
9. Critically examine whether growing population is the cause of poverty OR poverty is the mains cause of population increase in India.
Ans. It’s both. Those who think population growth causes poverty advocate programs in family planning and population education. Those who think poverty causes population growth favour direct economic aid, jobs, capital investment. Take care of development, they say, and the birth rate will take care of itselfThe developing countries already facing a lack in their resources, and with the rapidly increasing population, the resources available per person are reduced further, leading to increased poverty, malnutrition, and other large population-related problems. REASONS FOR INCREASE IN POPULATION: Higher Birth Rate, Lower Death Rate, Increased illegal migration and Poverty are root or major causes of growing population in India:
India currently faces a vicious cycle of population explosion and poverty. One of the most important reasons for this population increase in India is poverty. More than 300 million Indians earn less than US $1 everyday and about 130 million people are jobless. The people, who have to struggle to make two ends meet produce more children because more children mean more earning hands.Also, due to poverty, the infant mortality rate among such families is higher due to the lack of facilities like food and medical resources. Due to the increase in population, the problems of scarce resources, jobs, and poverty increases. Thus the cycle of poverty(PYNE) continues leading to an ever-increasing population that we see today.
How to Break this Cycle of Poverty
Micro credit loan will lead to increase the financial inclusion and create more business opportunity = more jobs = more income = govt will have more tax = govt can build more infrastructure = it can solve above problems.. Thn when people have more money= socially upliftment = social harmony = less crime = country prosperity increase = indian will have good HDI index + human happiness index points etc.
Now a days genric medicines are available which is cheap and also available in indian markets, if govt will provide better health facilities we can cure many diseases like as we did in the case of polio.. Increase the infra. At hospitals, better regulation of private hospitals, hub & spoke approach + increase traning of Asha nurses at villages and small towns + reap the capabilities of AYUSH medicines+ the doctore who pass from medical institutes every year. Sign contract of min 2 yrs to serve at rural areas etc nd the mains thing is increase awareness by more spending on advertisements..
Provide free and good standard of education = income expenditure increase= savings = people will have good personal income = they have money to spend on health and other expenditures = govt CAD decrease.. Govt will have more funds and then govt can spend on infrastructure = hunger problem sort out + sanitation through public infrastructure ( prob solve) = disease, malnutrition and death rate + maternal mortality rate + infant mortality rate goes down = then we can reap the benifit of democratic dividend = indian workforce can be use by the govt = economy boom = people prosperity high.etc.
It is a very sensitive issue in India, so it has to be handled with utmost care. There is an urgent need to lower birth rates in India. In India, family planning facilities are available only in the urban centres and semi-urban areas. So poor people of rural areas don’t get these facilities easily. Therefore, family planning centres with trained personnel should be set up in rural areas to prove this facility at their doorstep. This can very much help in lowering the birth rate. Population has been growing at a huge pace in India, numbers show that. The fertility levels amongst Indian women are one of the highest in the world. Which in turn is high because of lower levels of literacy of women, child marriage, less age gap between two children, the poor health of the mother which is a result of living in impoverished conditions. So, it is a vicious circle, which has no end.
10. How do you explain the statistics that show that the sex ratio in Tribes in India is more favourable to women than the sex ratio among Scheduled Castes?
Ans. Better sex ratios among tribals could reflect a combination of positive and negative factors; cultural gender parity as well as lack of access to pre-natal diagnostic technology. Similarly, the female work participation rate – the proportion of women who are in the workforce – which is considered an indicator of female empowerment, is highest among STs, followed by SCs. Read more plz wait..
11. Discuss the changes in the trends of labour migration within and outside India in the last four decades.
Ans:- Decline in male migration, increasing interstate mobility among male in urban area, steady increase of urban migrants in lower economic class and decline in labour force participation especially among females.
The oil price boom in 1973 caused an explosive growth in migration to the region. According to Stalker (2000) the number of immigrants in the seven States of the Gulf Cooperation Council, rose from 1.1 million to 5.2 million between 1975 and 1990. The subsequent decline in oil prices, the Gulf war and the completion of many construction projects led to a sharp fall in the demand for migrant labour since the mid-1980s. At the same time, the volume of labour migration within the Asian region was growing with rapid economic growth in East Asia and the emergence of newly industrializing economies such as Malaysia and Thailand. Yet South Asia was still heavily dependent on the Middle Eastern countries. According to ILO estimates, there were about 6.5 million foreign workers in 1997 in seven Asian countries or areas: Japan, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Hong Kong (China) and Taiwan (China).
Temporary migration of labour. Labour migration in Asia is mostly on fixed term contracts representing temporary migration. Permanent or settler migration still takes place on a limited scale to Australia and New Zealand. The short duration has obvious implications for recognition of migrant rights and their economic and social integration in receiving countries.
Irregular migrants Irregular migration has emerged as a major issue affecting the management of international migration globally. The seriousness of the problem led the Royal Thai government to convene an international symposium on the issue with the participation of 18 countries and Hong Kong SAR in April 1999.
12. Discuss the positive and negative effects of globalization on women in India?
Ans.It provides opportunities for not only working men, but also women, who are becoming a larger part of the workforce.With new jobs for women, there are opportunities for higher pay, which raises self–confidence and brings about independence. This, in turn, can promote equality between the sexes, something that Indian women have been struggling with their entire lives.Globalization has the power to uproot the traditional treatment towards women to afford them an equal stance in society. For working women, this discrimination is extended to the workplace also. The improper and insufficient dietary intake along with the heavy workload results in nutritional disorders.
Globalization is a process of increasing interdependence, transnational and integration of economies and societies to such an extent that an event in one part of the globe affects people in other parts of world. In India today,globalization has had positive and negative implications within the male-dominant society. Even though India’s constitution grants women legal citizenship, women get very little respect and standing in this country. With the help of the media, women’s organizations have helped to advance women in the workforce, creating an increase in the standing of women. Even though globalization is broadening the workforce for women, it can have a negative impact by exploiting women in dangerous jobs, in which they are overworked.
The positive effect
The positive effect of globalization is that it has opened up broader communication lines and attracted more companies as well as different organizations into India. This provides opportunities for not only working men, but also women, who are becoming a larger part of the workforce. With new jobs for women, there are opportunities for higher pay, which raises self–confidence and brings about independence. This, in turn, can promote equality between the sexes, something that Indian women have been struggling with their entire lives. Globalization has the power to uproot the traditional treatment towards women to afford them an equal stance in society.
it may exacerbate gender inequality in a patriarchal society, especially in the developing world. In the economic realm it may lead to further marginalisation of women in the informal labour sector or impoverishment through loss of traditional sources of income. Gender equality is critical to the development process. The process of globalisation may have resulted in new avenues of growth, but due to unequal distribution of its benefits women have been adversely affected in many cases. It calls for creating opportunities for women to be part of this development process. Merely enacting legislation will not help. What is required is its proper implementation. As another report on ‘The Realisation of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; highlights:
Among the distinct groups of society upon whom globalisation’s impact has been most telling, women clearly stand out. Women have entered the workforce in large numbers in states that have embraced liberal economic policies.
It has affected women in economically, Politically, and also culturally:-
Economically, through discrimination in favor of male workers, marginalization of women in unpaid or informal labor, exploitation of women in low-wage sweatshop settings, and/or impoverishment though loss of traditional sources of income.
Politically, through exclusion from the domestic political process and loss of control to global pressures.
Culturally,through loss of identity and autonomy to a hegemonic global culture.
Owing to their many roles, as would-be mothers, as mothers responsible for the health of their children and families, as working women at home and outside they are major consumers of healthcare products.
13. Debate the issue whether and how contemporary movements for assertion of Dalit identity work towards annihilation of caste.
Ans. The essence of caste, it may be seen, is not an identity but a hierarchy. Under exogenous pressure, caste feigns as identity but once the pressure is removed, it seeks hierarchy within and begins splitting. This in part explains why the ethnic identities constructed on the basis of caste in the emancipation project have not worked.The Dalit constructed by the Ambedkarite movement as a pan-Indian identity of the ex-untouchables appeared viable at one time, but in reality failed to bring all the untouchables together. Now it is getting further splintered along sub-caste lines. All the ethnic identities, both earlier and now, which used caste as their basis have met or will meet the same fate. Read more plz wait….
14. Explain the factors responsible for the origin of ocean currents. How do they influence regional climates, fishing and navigation?
Ans.Rotation of the earth, wind, landscapes and gravity influence ocean currents. Currents: cold and warm currents influence the climate, fishing and navigation like the following:-
Fog occurs where cold and warm currents meet. Warm currents in some regions extend up to temperate coasts for example:- Eastern U.S, Western Europe and moderate weather conditions prevail even in winter. Water does not freeze in North Sea due to the temperature extension of Gulf Stream. Currents bring the algae from tropics to subtropics coast and the confluence of warm and cold currents enhances the fish resources. It helps to navigate in a particular direction especially for small boats and ships. Read more plz wait….
15. Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata are the three Mega cities of the country but the air pollution is much more serious probelm in Delhi as compared to the other two. Why is this so?
Ans.Of the world’s top 20 polluted cities, 13 are in India compared to just three in China. Air pollution slashes life expectancy by 3.2 years for the 660 million Indians who live in cities, including Mumbai, Delhi, kolkata. The Ganga and Yamuna are ranked among the world’s 10 most polluted rivers. China has just one. Sources Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions In Cities are: Grater mumbai:-17.41%, Delhi:-32.08%, Kolkata:-13.3%. Greenhouse Gas Emissions In above Cities are: Grater mumbai:-3.97%, Delhi:-12.39%, Kolkata:-1.97%.
Delhi’s transport sector contributes 32% of the city’s GHG emissions—gases responsible for global warming—said the report, GHG Footprint of Major Cities in India, conducted by the Centre for Ecological Sciences of the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore. The result of the large scale environmental pollution is that public health has taken a severe beating. In many parts of Faridabad people suffer from diseases like asthma, cancer, skin problems etc.
Major reasons for air pollution:Highly concentrated automobiles especially two wheelers, poor road networks, dry air conditions and other urban developmental activities. Delhi has high concentration of vehicles relatively than other cities. Due to the location factor (Delhi is located far away from coast and subtropical zone) it has more dust and other air pollutants. High relative humidity reduces the concentration of dust and other pollutants by depositing the particles in the surface. Humidity absorbs this. Problem is serious in Delhi than in other cities. Because of population density is a major problem in the city. In winter season, it may cause smog.etc…
16. India is well endowed with fresh water resources. Critically examine why it still suffers from water scarcity.
Ans.Even India has many perennial Rivers in the northern parts, Central peninsular part, western part, North western part and some urban centres suffer due to water scarcity. Especially in South India, all rivers are non-perennial and monsoon dependent. Lack of rain water harvesting methods enhances the problems of water scarcity. River pollutant is other one reason for the scarcity issue. Over exploitation of sand in the rivers due to rapid urbanisation causes less water flow in the rivers. Over exploitation of ground water is an issue here. Availability of water is enough to feed the people but unregulated utilisation causes the problem of scarcity.
The Advanced Centre for Water Resources Development and Management (ACWADAM), an education and research institution, has organized a two-day workshop on aquifers, participatory groundwater management and governance. There was also a report on water crisis in India , by world resources institute.
India’s Water crisis :
1.India’s huge and growing population is putting a severe strain on all of the country’s natural resources. Most water sources are contaminated by sewage and agricultural runoff. India has made progress in the supply of safe water to its people, but gross disparity in coverage exists across the country.
2.In India, diarrhoea alone causes more than 1,600 deaths daily, the same as if eight 200-person jumbo-jets crashed to the ground each day.
3.Water scarcity has begun early in India. Corporations and farmers have been guzzling surface water, groundwater levels have been reducing, and the amount of pollutants in water is increasingly rapidly, according to a report for world resources institute.
4.With increasing industrialisation and urbanisation, more than 40% of India’s available surface water is being used every year. In the northwestern region,the breadbasket of India, about 80% of the surface water is being used.
Demands growing water:- The demand supply mismatch is more severe in certain areas. In urban areas, where the demand of 135 litres per capita daily (lpcd) is more than three times the rural demand of 40 lpcd, the scarcity assumes menacing proportions. Already, Delhi and Chennai are fed with supply lines stretching hundreds of kilometres. Communities not being in control of their water resources, Water is used as a political tool, controlled and cornered by the rich, who do not pay the price for this scarce resource. The poverty of incomes, capabilities and opportunities of many is compounded by ‘water poverty’.
Water experts increasingly agree that the most effective long-term strategies for dealing with water scarcity include conservation and more efficient water use. Water shortages are already forcing many people to use and re-use water more efficiently. And the efficiency of water use can be further improved–in many cases dramatically. Over the longer term, however, human populations will need to come into balance with available renewable water supplies.
17. The states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand are reaching the limits of econological carrying capacity due to tourism. Critically evaluate.
Ans.The places having the ideal conditions to develop tourism industry. But the problem is developmental activities due to tourism. The consequences of development activities cause ecological imbalance. Sustainability is not maintained in those regions. The upper course of Ganga has many pilgrimage centres and attracts pilgrims from various parts of the country and causes the issues like solid waste, pollutants, and environmental damages. The problems can be managed. Unless the proper regulation measures are taken, ecological imbalance will be caused. Read more plz wait…..
18. How far do you agree that the behaviour of the Indian monsoon has been changing due to humanizing landscape? Discuss.
Ans. Urbanisation by destroying a healthy ecosystem, agricultural activities by destroying forests cause change in behaviour of Indian monsoon. For example:- Clear cutting in hills and mountains causes severe deforestation and reduces the condensation capacity of moisture in the air. Urban heat island enhances the convection process and fringe zones are affected severely. Recent urban flooding in India was caused not by the regular monsoon but due to humanizing landscapes. Read more plz wait…
19. Smart cities in India cannot sustain without smart vilages. Discuss this statement in the backdrop of rural urban integration.
Ans. Smart cities in India are developed by choosing existing cities.Smart cities are eco-friendly and is planned to keep sustainability. Sustainability can be maintained by balancing both rural and urban centres. Rural zone’s natural capital is utilized for urban development.There are interdependencies between rural and urban zones in regional development. So without smart village, we cannot create smart cities.Only economic services by the rural regions are considered for development. Ecological services provided by the rural should be considered to develop the region even the urban also. It can be achieved only through smart villages. Read more plz wait…
20. What are the economic significinces of discovery of oil in Arctic Sea and its possible environmental consequences?
Ans.Urbanisation by destroying a healthy ecosystem, agricultural activities by destroying forests cause change in behaviour of Indian monsoon. For e.g. Clear cutting in hills and mountains causes severe deforestation and reduces the condensation capacity of moisture in the air.Urban heat island enhances the convection process and fringe zones are affected severely. Recent urban flooding in India was caused not by the regular monsoon but due to humanizing landscapes.
The Arctic Sea is estimated to have as much 10 to 20% of the world’s oil and nearly 30% of natural Gas. Exploration of the Arctic for petroleum is considered more technically challenging than in any other environment so far. However, recent technological developments as well as relatively high oil prices have allowed for exploration. As a result, the region has received significant interest from the petroleum industry.
Oil resources in the regions like West Asia and in other major exporter countries, resource will be over within 50 to 100 years. A next largest reserve of Natural Gas and Oil is available in Arctic. New reserves have been explored in the equatorial forests regions also. Consequences: To exploit oil reserves, we have to break the ice cover. It will increase the mean sea level. The pollutants originated due to mining of these resources severely will damage the Arctic ecosystem like extinction of species. The consequent impact will be felt in other parts the world also like destruction of fertile land, salt water intrusion, submergence of many islands…Read more plz wait….