UPSC 2015 General Studies Paper 1 Solved
Answer the following questions in not more than 200 words each. Contents of the answers are more important than their length. All questions carry equal marks.
Note: Each question carries 12.5 Marks (12.5 X 20=250)
1. The ancient civilization in Indian sub continent differed from tse of Egypt , Mesopotamia and Greece in that its culture and traditions have been preserved without breakdown to the present day. Comment.
Ans:- The ancient civilisation was Indus Valley Civilisation. Answer revolves around salient features or uniqueness of Indus Civilisation – Drainage, Town planning, Secular character, script etc. Continuity of culture – Fire worship, Bull worship, Pottery, Social character, Assimilation and accommodative nature etc.
The Indian subcontinent is a diverse and fertile region with monsoons, droughts, plains, mountains, deserts, and especially rivers, along which early cities developed in the third millennium B.C. Along with Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, and Mesoamerica, the ancient Indian subcontinent was one of the few places in the world to develop its own system of writing. Its early literature was written in Sanskrit. Read more plz wait..
2. Mesolithic rock cut architecture of India not only reflects the cultural life of the times but also a fine aesthetic sense comparable to modern painting. Critically evaluate this comment.
Ans. Depiction of animals, hunting scenes, the Mesolithic sites have also painting of social life, sexual activity, child birth, rearing of children and burial ceremony. The symmetry of artifacts, evidence of attention to the detail of tool shape, activities etc. In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural stone; it is largely synonymous with parietal art. A global phenomenon, rock art is found in many culturally diverse regions of the world. Indian rock-cut architecture is mostly religious in nature. It has been produced in many contexts throughout human history, although the majority of rock art that has been ethnographically recorded has been produced as a part of ritual.
Such artworks are often divided into three forms:
Petroglyphs, which are carved into the rock surface, pictographs, which are painted onto the surface, and earth figures, engraved into the ground. The oldest known rock art dates from the Upper Palaeolithic period, having been found in Europe, Australia, Asia and Africa. Archaeologists studying these artworks believe that they likely had magico-religious significance.
Singrauli is the 50th district in the state of Madhya Pradesh, which covers a region comprising of the eastern part of the Sidhi district in Madhya Pradesh and the adjoining region in Sonebhadra district in UP. Historically Singrauli belonged to the princely state of Rewa, a part of the Baghelkhad region. Singrauli has a history spanning from the emergence of pre – historic man to the present age of industrialization. It is a region with abundance of natural & mineral resources Due to abundance of mineral resources and thermal power plants it is nicknamed as Urjanchal – the land of energy. While modern industries dominated the region today, the history of Singrauli is as colourful and interesting as is promising future.
The Ajanta Caves in Maharashtra are 30 rock-cut Buddhist temples that span 6 centuries, beginning in the 1st century BCE. They are carved into the vertical side of a gorge located in the hills of the Sahyadri mountains.
Similar to the Barabar Caves, the Ajanta Caves are situated close to main trade routes. A great deal of decorative sculpture—intricately carved columns and reliefs , including cornices and pilaster—are found here.
The Ellora caves were built between the 5th and 10th centuries. These caves are made up of twelve Buddhist, seventeen Hindu, and five Jain rock-cut temples, excavated out of the Charanandri hills. etc.
The Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka are a repository of rock paintings within natural rock shelters with archaeological evidences of habitation and lithic industry, from the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods through the Chalcolithic to the Mediaeval period. They are located within the designated Ratapani Wildlife Sanctuary, in an area of abundant natural resources and shelter. The shelters exhibit the earliest traces of human life in India, its rock paintings are among the world’s oldest.
The topmost architectural element of a building, projecting forward from the main walls, originally used as a means of directing rainwater away from the building’s walls. A rectangular column that projects partially from the wall to which it is attached; it gives the appearance of a support, but is only for decoration. A medium used to bind pigments in painting, as well as the associated artistic techniques. There are more than 1,500 rock-cut temples in India, most of which are religious in nature, adorned with decorative paintings and exquisite stone carvings reflecting a very high level of craftsmanship.Bhimbetka is an ideal location to view rock paintings of mesolithic man.People really interested in this part of history ,when visiting bhimbetka , must also visit places around this region where also more such specimens are available within Raisen district. Its worth it.
The Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka are in the foothills of the Vindhyan Mountains on the southern edge of the central Indian plateau. Within massive sandstone outcrops, above comparatively dense forest, are five clusters of natural rock shelters, displaying paintings that appear to date from the Mesolithic Period right through to the historical period. The cultural traditions of the inhabitants of the twenty-one villages adjacent to the site bear a strong resemblance to those represented in the rock paintings.
3. How difficult would have been the achievement of Indian independence without Mahatma Gandhi? Discuss.
Ans:- Philosophy and ideological difference, Change in pattern of Mass participation, Multipolar Movement, Silent revolution in village would have not happened, Reforms within congress organisation would be different.etc… Gandhi learned many things from his south African journey. Tolstoy and pheonix farms were precursor to Gandhi’s ashrams in India Gandhi learned how to lead masses having diversity including women, student, and various other sections. Gandhi acquired so much emotional intelligent from his movements in south Africa that he got the strength of taking big decisions like to call off NCM at peak period also.. He learned the nerve of masses..Which he employed in Indian scenario. He inspired from several writers John Ruskin Henry D. Theoo. He personally believed in endurance of masses and ability of them in struggles. Until the start of Gandhian phase. Masses in India were partly inducted giving no such preference. But Gandhi inducted masses, especially women. In unprecedented level. Without Gandhi Dictatorship model would have evolved in India. Like that boss.Read more…please wait.
4. Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. B R Ambedkar, despite having divergent approaches and strategies, had a common goal of amelioration of the downtrodden. Elucidate.
Ans. Gandhi methods: centered around untouchability abolition, social accomodation etc. While Ambedkar methods: Social political and economic empowerment, social recognition and participation, democratisation of empowerment etc..
Differences of opinions between Gandhi and Dr.B R Ambedkar:-
1.Ambedkar felt that political freedom or self rule or swaraj would be farce for depressed classes and minorities because self (of self rule) or swa (of swaraj) is vaguely put and not clearly defined. Such self rule will mean domination of caste Hindus with perpetuation of all the oppression and inequalities which the depressed class faces. Hence, protection of the rights of depressed classes and the reformation of Indian(Hindu) society, making it more egalitarian and democratic, was much more needed than transfer of political power. So, Ambedkar felt that social change should precede political change.
2.Gandhi agreed that Indian society is highly inequitable and it needs reformation. But his approach for reformation was very different from Ambedkar.
3.Ambedkar was a vocal critic of caste. He studied and understood caste-how it is determined, how it is perpetuated and how it survives. And, thus based on his understanding, he came to conclusion that caste can’t be reformed. It needs to be annihilated. And Annihilation of caste system will include annihilation of chaturvarna tradition, from where it emanates.
4.Gandhi also detested caste but used to support the chutrvarna tradition based on the logic that it leads to division of labour. He added that division in the varna system should be based on worth and not birth. Further,Gandhi argued that there is need of “self purification” of hindu society and this self purification will happen by innovative Gandhian method of appealing to the conscience of the caste Hindus to identify the miseries of depressed classes and accommodate them. Gandhi use of term ‘’harijan’’ for depressed classes and his fight against untouchability was based on this view.
5.Ambedkar’s main argument with Gandhi was that the Hindu caste system and its inbuilt apartheid were abhorrent to the purposes of placing people on basis of worth rather than birth. He was critical of Gandhian method of “appealing to the conscience” to bring social change or eradicating untouchability as he held the view that caste system, discrimination and domination associated with it is not going to go that easily. Dominant castes with enjoying social power and prestige are not going to give share to their power so easily.
6.This difference in the views between Gandhi and ambedkar regarding caste and emancipation of downtrodden led to their differences in political approach. This gets exemplified in POONA PACT(1932) and afterwards.
“Gandhiji had used non-violent protests to appeal to the “sense of morality” of the oppressor, Dr. Ambedkar believed more in taking recourse to law for fighting oppression against Dalits.” “While Gandhiji made all-out efforts to eradicate untouchability in the Hindu society, he had to balance several causes he was pursuing during the freedom struggle.
In contrast, Dr. Ambedkar had a single cause for devoting his entire energy”,“Gandhiji had used non-violent protests to appeal to the “sense of morality” of the oppressor, Dr. Ambedkar believed more in taking recourse to law for fighting oppression against Dalits. There were some points of convergence between the two great leaders after the signing of the Poona Pact at Yerawada Jail in 1932.”On August 15, 1947, he was inducted as Independent India’s first Law Minister and on August 29 as Chairman of the Constitution’s Drafting Committee. Ambedkar’s wish that the idea of ‘one man one vote’ translating one day to ‘one man one value’ remains an important lodestar for India.
5. It would have been difficult for the Constituent Assembly to complete its historic task of drafting the Constitution for Independent India in just three years, but its experience gained with the Government of India Act, 1935 .Discuss.
Ans:-Autonomy in Provinces, complete responsibility to Indians, Dyarchy in centre, Relation with Governors and Viceroy, Execution of powers by Indians, Role of Parliamentarians. The claim that the Constitutional development in India (1861,1892, 1909, 1919 and 1935) was because of big heart and reforming tendencies of British, and the 1950 constitution was the logical culmination of the steps towards constitutional development taken by British in the past, is somewhat a very exaggerated claim.
The Constituent Assembly took almost three years (2 years, 11 months and 17 days to be precise) to complete its historic task of drafting the Constitution for Independent India. During this period, it held eleven sessions covering a total of 165 days. Of these, 114 days were spent on the consideration of the Draft Constitution. As to its composition, members were chosen by indirect election by the members of the Provincial Legislative Assemblies, according to the scheme recommended by the Cabinet Mission.
The Government of India act 1858 and the Indian council act of 1861, came in the aftermath of 1857 revolt and the British felt that cooperation of some Indians is needed in the administration of the vast country like India. Such a move was thought to (1) bring out Indian expression and grievances which could then be pacified by some incremental changes (while protecting the British interests), (2) co opt some Indians as companions and friends of British rule which would act not only act as brakes to any large scale uprising to British but will also act as “bulwarks” for British if any 1857 type revolt happened.
The arrangement was:
(i) 292 members were elected through the Provincial Legislative Assemblies;
(ii) 93 members represented the Indian Princely States; and
(iii) 4 members represented the Chief Commissioners’ Provinces.
The total membership of the Assembly thus was to be 389. However, as a result of the partition under the Mountbatten Plan of 3 June, 1947, a separate Constituent Assembly was set up for Pakistan and representatives of some Provinces ceased to be members of the Assembly. As a result, the membership of the Assembly was reduced to 299.
On 13 December, 1946, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru moved the Objectives ResolutionThe Constituent Assembly took almost three years (two years, eleven months and seventeen days to be precise) to complete its historic task of drafting the Constitution for Independent India. During this period, it held eleven sessions covering a total of 165 days. Of these, 114 days were spent on the consideration of the Draft Constitution.
The Government of India Act 1935 was originally passed in August 1935, and is said to have been the longest (British) Act of Parliament ever enacted by that time. Because of its length, the Act was retroactively split by the Government of India (Reprinting) Act 1935, into two separate Acts:
(1)The Government of India Act 1935
(2)The Government of Burma Act 1935
References in literature on Indian political and constitutional history are usually to the shortened Government of India Act 1935, rather than to the text of the Act as originally enacted.
The most significant aspects of the Act were:
(1)the grant of a large measure of autonomy to the provinces of British India (ending the system of dyarchy introduced by the Government of India Act 1919)
(2)provision for the establishment of a “Federation of India”, to be made up of both British India and some or all of the “princely states”
(3)the introduction of direct elections, thus increasing the franchise from seven million to thirty-five million people.
(4)the establishment of a Federal Court. etc
However, the degree of autonomy introduced at the provincial level was subject to important limitations: the provincial Governors retained important reserve powers, and the British authorities also retained a right to suspend responsible government.
The parts of the Act intended to establish the Federation of India never came into operation, due to opposition from rulers of the princely states. The remaining parts of the Act came into force in 1937, when the first elections under the act were also held. In this act The federal type of Government was selected but when the Act was given then the Indian National Congress opposed it because they wanted the unitary Government.
6. Why did the industrial revolution first occur in England? Discuss the quality of life of the people there during the industrialization. How does it compare with that in India at present times?
Ans. Capital, merchandise, geography, raw materials, scientific revolution, agrarian revolution, commercial revolution. Changes in position of women, child labours, urbanisation, family structure, migration. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain because of the beginning in the 2nd half of the 18th century. By the 1830s the following gains had been made in important technologies:- Textile industry:- Mechanised cotton spinning powered by steam or water greatly increased the output of a worker., Steam power:- The efficiency of steam engines increased so that they used between one-fifth and one-tenth as much fuel. Iron making:- The substitution of coke for charcoal greatly lowered the fuel cost for pig iron and wrought iron production. Industrialisation of the country can provide the necessary elements for strengthening the economy.
Britain had an abundance of cotton, used in the making of textiles. When the cottage industry and the manufacturing of clothing at home changed to the factory system, new machines were being created. Also, several key-inventors of these machines were from Great Britain and contributed to the factory system being established. Also, efficient transportation was already set up in Britain and it was further innovated with the demand between producers and suppliers.Great Britain also had a lot of natural resources.
Peter Lindert and Jeffrey Williamson, suggest that full-time earnings for British common labourers, adjusted for inflation, more than doubled in the seventy years after 1780. But Charles Feinstein argued that over the same period, British real wages only increased by around 30%. It’s a bit of an academic mess.
Most people agree that after about 1840, real wages did better. Nicholas Crafts and Terence Mills shows that from 1840 to 1910, real wages more than doubled. Their findings are mirrored by other researchers (see below right). Improvements may be due to technological innovation, which led to big increases in labour productivity and hence higher wages. Others reckon it is because the cost of living did not increase so fast. And the massive economic impact of the Napoleonic Wars—where, due to naval warfare, exporters suffered and imports were more expensive—gradually wore off.
So, while the Industrial Revolution ultimately led to big increases in wealth, progress was unsteady. For much of the period, the average person was not reaping the benefits of economic change. So much for wages. Other measures of standard of living should be considered. There is increased enthusiasm for biological measures of standard of living, such as people’s height. Height is a useful measure for a number of reasons. Researchers find height data from different places, including army archives; it is common practice to measure the stature of new recruits. Data can also be found in school records.
1. Raising Income: The first important role is that industrial development provide a secure basis for a rapid growth of income. In the industrially developed countries, for example, the GNP per capita income is very high at around $ 28,000. Whereas for the industrially backward countries it is very low at around $ 400 only.
2. Changing the Structure of the Economy: In order to develop the economy underdeveloped countries need structural change through industrialization. History shows that in the process of becoming developed economy the share of the industrial sector should rise and that of the agricultural sector decline.
3. Meeting High-Income Demands: Beyond certain limits, the demands of the people are usually for industrial products alone. After having met the needs of food, income of the people are spent mostly on manufactured goods.
4. Overcoming Deterioration in the Terms of Trade: Underdeveloped countries like India need industrialization to free themselves from the adverse effects of fluctuations in the prices of primary products and deterioration in their terms of trade. Such countries mainly export primary products and import manufactured goods. The prices of primary products have been falling or are stable whereas the prices of manufactured products have been rising. This led to deterioration in the terms of trade of the LDCs.
5. Absorbing Surplus Labour (Employment Generation): Underdeveloped countries like India are characterized by surplus labour and rapidly growing population. To absorb all the surplus labour it is essential to industrialise the country rapidly.etc.
The industrial development imparts to an economy dynamic element in the form of rapid growth and a diversified economic structure which make it a progressive economy. Industrialisation is needed to provide for the country’s security. This consideration becomes all the more critical when some international crisis develops. In such situation, dependence of foreign sources for defence materials is a risky affair.It is only through industrial development in a big way that the national objective of self-reliance in defence materials can be achieved.
7. To what extend can Germany be held responsible for causing the two World Wars? Discuss critically.
Ans. 1stWorld War: Support Austrian aggression, Balkan crisis, Morocco crisis, militarisation etc. 2nd World War: Invasion into Czech and Poland, Violation of Treaty of Versailles, Guns for butter, steel pacts etc..Colonial expansionism was a factor in that war but all of the major powers again were guilty of that. W.W.2nd they definitely had a major amount of blame for, but not all of it. The way the winners of WW I treated defeated Germany did allot to set the stage for the hate and feeling of need for vengeance to take hold. You need look no further for proof of this than to note that when Hitler defeated France in 1940, he had the original train car used in Versailles where they Germans were made to surrender to the allies used again to have the French have a taste of the humiliation that they were put through.
I think Germany was not responsible at all for World War One. They were allied with Austria, and when Austria invaded Serbia, England and France etc. Declared war in support of their serbian ally. Since Germany had an alliance with Austria, they declared war in return and the whole thing blew up in everyone’s face. World War Two was a different matter, the Germans started that one all on their own, at least the European part.
World War I and World War II are the most brutal and destructive wars that the world has faced in its history. Several countries were involved in the wars and its effects were felt worldwide. While the wars were caused by many different factors, one aspect common to both the wars was the participation of Germany. Role in emergence of alliances The main causes of the First World War include forming alliances, imperialism, militarism and nationalism.
In each of these long-term causes, Germany played an important role. After the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, Germany became a unified state. It quickly became the largest industrial power in Europe. This changed the balance of power and many of German’s neighbours became nervous.The emergence of alliances was a major cause of the First World War, because it divides the European powers, making them rivals, and countries forced to participate in war if one of his allies were involved in the war, which could turn a small war into a large one.
“Impacts of Weltpolitik foreign policy” In 1890, William II of Germany adopted Weltpolitik foreign policy to meet the colonial aspirations of Germany and created a strong navy and empire abroad. This imperialist policy had a great impact on relations between Germany and other countries and led Germany into conflict with Britain because of colonial conflicts. This increased the tension in Europe even more. In 1897, Germany began construction of new vessels in an attempt to challenge the naval supremacy of Britain, which led to the Naval Arms Race. Britain and Germany both increased sharply their navies, and it created even more tension between countries. Finally, nationalism in Europe also led to war, because it created competition between countries that wanted to prove that they were the best and most powerful. This is especially true for Germany, who wanted to become the largest colonial power and wanted to be better than Britain in all possible aspects. The involvement of Germany in each of the main causes of the First World War is obvious and shows that Germany is largely responsible for the war.
“The Treaty of Versailles” The Treaty of Versailles was created after World War I and it forced Germany to take full responsibility for the war, pay reparations to the Allied Powers, waive a large part of its territory, and to limit its army. Germans regarded the treaty as too harsh and unfair, and they were determined to throw off the shackles it had imposed on them. When Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933, two of its main axes were ending the Versailles Treaty and it started acquisition of more territory for the German people. These two things could not be achieved without causing conflict with other nations. Germany began to invade and annex the territories in Europe, such as Austria, and it also began to re-arm. This was against the Treaty of Versailles. In addition, in 1936, it sent troops into the Rhineland, which was supposed to be a zone “demilitarized,” as per the treaty. The moves of Germany caused tensions in Europe and made other countries very nervous. However, none dared to face it, lest another great war would break out. Since, the Germany faced no opposition; it began to demand more and more from other European countries until they realize that Germany would never be satisfied. It was the persistent requests of Germany, which finally forced Britain and France to declare war and caused the outbreak of the Second World War.
The participation of Germany in the long-term causes of World War II shows that it is largely responsible for the onset of the war. However, it can also be argued that Britain and France must bear some responsibility for causing the Second World War, not just Germany. This is mainly because they failed to stop Germany in the beginning when they still had the chance. Instead, they decided to follow a policy of appeasement and let Germany to get away with whatever it wanted without any kind of opposition to try to prevent war. Accordingly, Germany has won the trust and dared to do things that otherwise would not dare do, like remilitarization of rhineland.
8. Describe any four cultural elements of diversity in India and rate their relative significance in building a national identity.
India is the birthplace of four of the world’s major religions; namely Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. India is a land of diversity in race, region, caste, language, mate, landform, flora and fauna and so on. From ancient time till day India has repaintained this diversity from very ancient time. Mature has shaped the country so. Rightly this land has been termed as “the epitome of the world.” Cultural Diversity The years of foreign rule, religious movements, and spiritual discoveries in the ancient land of India has given way to a rich potpourri of social habits, festivals, and customs. To appreciate the Indian culture, an introduction to the religious heritage of India is necessary. Please see topics on the Bhakti Movement, Hinduism, Festivals, and other Topics on the Indian Culture. India also has a very rich native or tribal culture. See topics on the life of some of the tribes of India at the Tribals of Bastar and Children of the Forest God.
four cultural elements of diversity in India:-
1.Linguistic, Religious, Customs and traditions, social identity etc
2.Arguments lies in relating this concept with nation building.
3.Pluralism concept builds national identity.
4.Understanding each other unique cultural identity leads to cherishing culture thereby building national identity.etc….
Diversity of Clothing and Attire
Perhaps India remains the only country where unstitched clothing is still popular. The Saree, Lungi, Dhoti, Turbans are all worn this way. It is the way of wearing it is where the styles differ. Tailored Indian clothing includes Salwar-Kameez, collarless jackets, Kurtas, and western attires for both men and women. Many types of headgear are prevalent in India — these include rumals, topis, and turbans.
The fundamental diversity in India is gleaned from the following:-
India is a vast country with great diversity of physical features. Certain parts in India are so fertile that they are counted amongst the most fertile regions of the world while other are so unproductive and barren that hardly anything car be grown there.
India possesses a rich variety of races. In view of this variety Prof. V.A. Smith says, “From the human point of view India has been often described as an ethnological Dr racial museum in which numberless races of mankind may be steadied.”
India not only possesses racial diversity but also linguistic diversity- It is said that almost 400 languages are spoken in India. Some of the prominent language recognized by the constitution includes, Assamese Bengali, Gujrkti, Hindi, Kannad, Kashmiri, and Malayalam. Marathi, Or Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Terrill, Telgu and Urdu. In fact it is commonly believed that in India the language changes after every four kooks.
Religious and social Diversity:
In the religious sphere also India possesses great diversity. Almost all the principal religions of the world like Brahmanism, Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity are found here. Most of these religions are further sub-divided into various sects and divisions.
The diversity in culture, races, language, religion etc. greatly stood in the way of political unity in India. As a result from the earliest times, India has been divided into several independent principalities. The rulers of these principalities were always engaged in wars with each other for supremacy. This disunity and friction was fully exploited by the foreign invaders to bring India under their subjugation.
9. Critically examine whether growing population is the cause of poverty OR poverty is the mains cause of population increase in India.
Ans. It’s both. Those who think population growth causes poverty advocate programs in family planning and population education. Those who think poverty causes population growth favour direct economic aid, jobs, capital investment. Take care of development, they say, and the birth rate will take care of itselfThe developing countries already facing a lack in their resources, and with the rapidly increasing population, the resources available per person are reduced further, leading to increased poverty, malnutrition, and other large population-related problems. REASONS FOR INCREASE IN POPULATION: Higher Birth Rate, Lower Death Rate, Increased illegal migration and Poverty are root or major causes of growing population in India:
India currently faces a vicious cycle of population explosion and poverty. One of the most important reasons for this population increase in India is poverty. More than 300 million Indians earn less than US $1 everyday and about 130 million people are jobless. The people, who have to struggle to make two ends meet produce more children because more children mean more earning hands.Also, due to poverty, the infant mortality rate among such families is higher due to the lack of facilities like food and medical resources. Due to the increase in population, the problems of scarce resources, jobs, and poverty increases. Thus the cycle of poverty(PYNE) continues leading to an ever-increasing population that we see today.
How to Break this Cycle of Poverty
Micro credit loan will lead to increase the financial inclusion and create more business opportunity = more jobs = more income = govt will have more tax = govt can build more infrastructure = it can solve above problems.. Thn when people have more money= socially upliftment = social harmony = less crime = country prosperity increase = indian will have good HDI index + human happiness index points etc.
Now a days genric medicines are available which is cheap and also available in indian markets, if govt will provide better health facilities we can cure many diseases like as we did in the case of polio.. Increase the infra. At hospitals, better regulation of private hospitals, hub & spoke approach + increase traning of Asha nurses at villages and small towns + reap the capabilities of AYUSH medicines+ the doctore who pass from medical institutes every year. Sign contract of min 2 yrs to serve at rural areas etc nd the mains thing is increase awareness by more spending on advertisements..
Provide free and good standard of education = income expenditure increase= savings = people will have good personal income = they have money to spend on health and other expenditures = govt CAD decrease.. Govt will have more funds and then govt can spend on infrastructure = hunger problem sort out + sanitation through public infrastructure ( prob solve) = disease, malnutrition and death rate + maternal mortality rate + infant mortality rate goes down = then we can reap the benifit of democratic dividend = indian workforce can be use by the govt = economy boom = people prosperity high.etc.
It is a very sensitive issue in India, so it has to be handled with utmost care. There is an urgent need to lower birth rates in India. In India, family planning facilities are available only in the urban centres and semi-urban areas. So poor people of rural areas don’t get these facilities easily. Therefore, family planning centres with trained personnel should be set up in rural areas to prove this facility at their doorstep. This can very much help in lowering the birth rate. Population has been growing at a huge pace in India, numbers show that. The fertility levels amongst Indian women are one of the highest in the world. Which in turn is high because of lower levels of literacy of women, child marriage, less age gap between two children, the poor health of the mother which is a result of living in impoverished conditions. So, it is a vicious circle, which has no end.
10. How do you explain the statistics that show that the sex ratio in Tribes in India is more favourable to women than the sex ratio among Scheduled Castes?
Ans. Better sex ratios among tribals could reflect a combination of positive and negative factors; cultural gender parity as well as lack of access to pre-natal diagnostic technology. Similarly, the female work participation rate – the proportion of women who are in the workforce – which is considered an indicator of female empowerment, is highest among STs, followed by SCs. Read more plz wait..
11. Discuss the changes in the trends of labour migration within and outside India in the last four decades.
Ans:- Decline in male migration, increasing interstate mobility among male in urban area, steady increase of urban migrants in lower economic class and decline in labour force participation especially among females.
The oil price boom in 1973 caused an explosive growth in migration to the region. According to Stalker (2000) the number of immigrants in the seven States of the Gulf Cooperation Council, rose from 1.1 million to 5.2 million between 1975 and 1990. The subsequent decline in oil prices, the Gulf war and the completion of many construction projects led to a sharp fall in the demand for migrant labour since the mid-1980s. At the same time, the volume of labour migration within the Asian region was growing with rapid economic growth in East Asia and the emergence of newly industrializing economies such as Malaysia and Thailand. Yet South Asia was still heavily dependent on the Middle Eastern countries. According to ILO estimates, there were about 6.5 million foreign workers in 1997 in seven Asian countries or areas: Japan, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Hong Kong (China) and Taiwan (China).
Temporary migration of labour. Labour migration in Asia is mostly on fixed term contracts representing temporary migration. Permanent or settler migration still takes place on a limited scale to Australia and New Zealand. The short duration has obvious implications for recognition of migrant rights and their economic and social integration in receiving countries.
Irregular migrants Irregular migration has emerged as a major issue affecting the management of international migration globally. The seriousness of the problem led the Royal Thai government to convene an international symposium on the issue with the participation of 18 countries and Hong Kong SAR in April 1999.
12. Discuss the positive and negative effects of globalization on women in India?
Ans.It provides opportunities for not only working men, but also women, who are becoming a larger part of the workforce.With new jobs for women, there are opportunities for higher pay, which raises self–confidence and brings about independence. This, in turn, can promote equality between the sexes, something that Indian women have been struggling with their entire lives.Globalization has the power to uproot the traditional treatment towards women to afford them an equal stance in society. For working women, this discrimination is extended to the workplace also. The improper and insufficient dietary intake along with the heavy workload results in nutritional disorders.
Globalization is a process of increasing interdependence, transnational and integration of economies and societies to such an extent that an event in one part of the globe affects people in other parts of world. In India today, globalization has had positive and negative implications within the male-dominant society. Even though India’s constitution grants women legal citizenship, women get very little respect and standing in this country. With the help of the media, women’s organizations have helped to advance women in the workforce, creating an increase in the standing of women. Even though globalization is broadening the workforce for women, it can have a negative impact by exploiting women in dangerous jobs, in which they are overworked.
The positive effect
The positive effect of globalization is that it has opened up broader communication lines and attracted more companies as well as different organizations into India. This provides opportunities for not only working men, but also women, who are becoming a larger part of the workforce. With new jobs for women, there are opportunities for higher pay, which raises self–confidence and brings about independence. This, in turn, can promote equality between the sexes, something that Indian women have been struggling with their entire lives. Globalization has the power to uproot the traditional treatment towards women to afford them an equal stance in society.
it may exacerbate gender inequality in a patriarchal society, especially in the developing world. In the economic realm it may lead to further marginalisation of women in the informal labour sector or impoverishment through loss of traditional sources of income. Gender equality is critical to the development process. The process of globalisation may have resulted in new avenues of growth, but due to unequal distribution of its benefits women have been adversely affected in many cases. It calls for creating opportunities for women to be part of this development process. Merely enacting legislation will not help. What is required is its proper implementation. As another report on ‘The Realisation of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; highlights:
Among the distinct groups of society upon whom globalisation’s impact has been most telling, women clearly stand out. Women have entered the workforce in large numbers in states that have embraced liberal economic policies.
It has affected women in economically, Politically, and also culturally:-
Economically, through discrimination in favor of male workers, marginalization of women in unpaid or informal labor, exploitation of women in low-wage sweatshop settings, and/or impoverishment though loss of traditional sources of income.
Politically, through exclusion from the domestic political process and loss of control to global pressures.
Culturally, through loss of identity and autonomy to a hegemonic global culture.
Owing to their many roles, as would-be mothers, as mothers responsible for the health of their children and families, as working women at home and outside they are major consumers of healthcare products.
13. Debate the issue whether and how contemporary movements for assertion of Dalit identity work towards annihilation of caste.
Ans. The essence of caste, it may be seen, is not an identity but a hierarchy. Under exogenous pressure, caste feigns as identity but once the pressure is removed, it seeks hierarchy within and begins splitting. This in part explains why the ethnic identities constructed on the basis of caste in the emancipation project have not worked.The Dalit constructed by the Ambedkarite movement as a pan-Indian identity of the ex-untouchables appeared viable at one time, but in reality failed to bring all the untouchables together. Now it is getting further splintered along sub-caste lines. All the ethnic identities, both earlier and now, which used caste as their basis have met or will meet the same fate. Read more plz wait….
14. Explain the factors responsible for the origin of ocean currents. How do they influence regional climates, fishing and navigation?
Ans.Rotation of the earth, wind, landscapes and gravity influence ocean currents. Currents: cold and warm currents influence the climate, fishing and navigation like the following:-
Fog occurs where cold and warm currents meet. Warm currents in some regions extend up to temperate coasts for example:- Eastern U.S, Western Europe and moderate weather conditions prevail even in winter. Water does not freeze in North Sea due to the temperature extension of Gulf Stream. Currents bring the algae from tropics to subtropics coast and the confluence of warm and cold currents enhances the fish resources. It helps to navigate in a particular direction especially for small boats and ships. Read more plz wait….
15. Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata are the three Mega cities of the country but the air pollution is much more serious probelm in Delhi as compared to the other two. Why is this so?
Ans.Of the world’s top 20 polluted cities, 13 are in India compared to just three in China. Air pollution slashes life expectancy by 3.2 years for the 660 million Indians who live in cities, including Mumbai, Delhi, kolkata. The Ganga and Yamuna are ranked among the world’s 10 most polluted rivers. China has just one. Sources Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions In Cities are: Grater mumbai:-17.41%, Delhi:-32.08%, Kolkata:-13.3%. Greenhouse Gas Emissions In above Cities are: Grater mumbai:-3.97%, Delhi:-12.39%, Kolkata:-1.97%.
Delhi’s transport sector contributes 32% of the city’s GHG emissions—gases responsible for global warming—said the report, GHG Footprint of Major Cities in India, conducted by the Centre for Ecological Sciences of the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore. The result of the large scale environmental pollution is that public health has taken a severe beating. In many parts of Faridabad people suffer from diseases like asthma, cancer, skin problems etc.
Major reasons for air pollution: Highly concentrated automobiles especially two wheelers, poor road networks, dry air conditions and other urban developmental activities. Delhi has high concentration of vehicles relatively than other cities. Due to the location factor (Delhi is located far away from coast and subtropical zone) it has more dust and other air pollutants. High relative humidity reduces the concentration of dust and other pollutants by depositing the particles in the surface. Humidity absorbs this. Problem is serious in Delhi than in other cities. Because of population density is a major problem in the city. In winter season, it may cause smog.etc…
16. India is well endowed with fresh water resources. Critically examine why it still suffers from water scarcity.
Ans.Even India has many perennial Rivers in the northern parts, Central peninsular part, western part, North western part and some urban centres suffer due to water scarcity. Especially in South India, all rivers are non-perennial and monsoon dependent. Lack of rain water harvesting methods enhances the problems of water scarcity. River pollutant is other one reason for the scarcity issue. Over exploitation of sand in the rivers due to rapid urbanisation causes less water flow in the rivers. Over exploitation of ground water is an issue here. Availability of water is enough to feed the people but unregulated utilisation causes the problem of scarcity.
The Advanced Centre for Water Resources Development and Management (ACWADAM), an education and research institution, has organized a two-day workshop on aquifers, participatory groundwater management and governance. There was also a report on water crisis in India , by world resources institute.
India’s Water crisis :
1.India’s huge and growing population is putting a severe strain on all of the country’s natural resources. Most water sources are contaminated by sewage and agricultural runoff. India has made progress in the supply of safe water to its people, but gross disparity in coverage exists across the country.
2.In India, diarrhoea alone causes more than 1,600 deaths daily, the same as if eight 200-person jumbo-jets crashed to the ground each day.
3.Water scarcity has begun early in India. Corporations and farmers have been guzzling surface water, groundwater levels have been reducing, and the amount of pollutants in water is increasingly rapidly, according to a report for world resources institute.
4.With increasing industrialisation and urbanisation, more than 40% of India’s available surface water is being used every year. In the northwestern region,the breadbasket of India, about 80% of the surface water is being used.
Demands growing water:- The demand supply mismatch is more severe in certain areas. In urban areas, where the demand of 135 litres per capita daily (lpcd) is more than three times the rural demand of 40 lpcd, the scarcity assumes menacing proportions. Already, Delhi and Chennai are fed with supply lines stretching hundreds of kilometres. Communities not being in control of their water resources, Water is used as a political tool, controlled and cornered by the rich, who do not pay the price for this scarce resource. The poverty of incomes, capabilities and opportunities of many is compounded by ‘water poverty’.
Water experts increasingly agree that the most effective long-term strategies for dealing with water scarcity include conservation and more efficient water use. Water shortages are already forcing many people to use and re-use water more efficiently. And the efficiency of water use can be further improved–in many cases dramatically. Over the longer term, however, human populations will need to come into balance with available renewable water supplies.
17. The states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand are reaching the limits of econological carrying capacity due to tourism. Critically evaluate.
Ans.The places having the ideal conditions to develop tourism industry. But the problem is developmental activities due to tourism. The consequences of development activities cause ecological imbalance. Sustainability is not maintained in those regions. The upper course of Ganga has many pilgrimage centres and attracts pilgrims from various parts of the country and causes the issues like solid waste, pollutants, and environmental damages. The problems can be managed. Unless the proper regulation measures are taken, ecological imbalance will be caused. Read more plz wait…..
18. How far do you agree that the behaviour of the Indian monsoon has been changing due to humanizing landscape? Discuss.
Ans. Urbanisation by destroying a healthy ecosystem, agricultural activities by destroying forests cause change in behaviour of Indian monsoon. For example:- Clear cutting in hills and mountains causes severe deforestation and reduces the condensation capacity of moisture in the air. Urban heat island enhances the convection process and fringe zones are affected severely. Recent urban flooding in India was caused not by the regular monsoon but due to humanizing landscapes. Read more plz wait…
19. Smart cities in India cannot sustain without smart vilages. Discuss this statement in the backdrop of rural urban integration.
Ans. Smart cities in India are developed by choosing existing cities.Smart cities are eco-friendly and is planned to keep sustainability. Sustainability can be maintained by balancing both rural and urban centres. Rural zone’s natural capital is utilized for urban development.There are interdependencies between rural and urban zones in regional development. So without smart village, we cannot create smart cities.Only economic services by the rural regions are considered for development. Ecological services provided by the rural should be considered to develop the region even the urban also. It can be achieved only through smart villages. Read more plz wait…
20. What are the economic significinces of discovery of oil in Arctic Sea and its possible environmental consequences?
Ans.Urbanisation by destroying a healthy ecosystem, agricultural activities by destroying forests cause change in behaviour of Indian monsoon. For e.g. Clear cutting in hills and mountains causes severe deforestation and reduces the condensation capacity of moisture in the air.Urban heat island enhances the convection process and fringe zones are affected severely. Recent urban flooding in India was caused not by the regular monsoon but due to humanizing landscapes.
The Arctic Sea is estimated to have as much 10 to 20% of the world’s oil and nearly 30% of natural Gas. Exploration of the Arctic for petroleum is considered more technically challenging than in any other environment so far. However, recent technological developments as well as relatively high oil prices have allowed for exploration. As a result, the region has received significant interest from the petroleum industry.
Oil resources in the regions like West Asia and in other major exporter countries, resource will be over within 50 to 100 years. A next largest reserve of Natural Gas and Oil is available in Arctic. New reserves have been explored in the equatorial forests regions also. Consequences: To exploit oil reserves, we have to break the ice cover. It will increase the mean sea level. The pollutants originated due to mining of these resources severely will damage the Arctic ecosystem like extinction of species. The consequent impact will be felt in other parts the world also like destruction of fertile land, salt water intrusion, submergence of many islands…Read more plz wait….
General Studies Paper 2 Solved
Answer the following questions in not more than 200 words each. Contents of the answers are more important than their length. All questions carry equal marks.
Note: Each question carries 12.5 Marks 12.5 * 20=250
Q1. Discuss the possible factors that inhibit India from enacting for its citizens a uniform civil code as provided for in the Directive Principles of State policy.
Ans. Constitutional Aspect : Article 44 of the Constitution of India requires the State to strive to secure for its citizens a Common Civil Code throughout India. The secular activities, such as inheritance covered by personal laws should be separated from religion. A uniform law thus prepared and made applicable to all would on the contrary promote national unity. It was pointed out at that time that, firstly, as Common Civil Code would infringe the fundamental right of freedom of religion as mentioned in Article 25 and secondly, it would amount to a tyranny to the minority. The first objection is misconceived because secular activity associated with religious practice is exempted from this guarantee and since personal laws pertains to secular activities they fail within the regulatory power of the state.
UCC enacted at the time of independence :
The framers of the constitution wee convinced that a certain amount modernisation was required before a uniform civil code was imposed on citizens belonging to different religions. It was also feared that any attempt to ignore personal laws of various religions might lead to civil war, rioting and social unrest.
India’s leaders at the time wanted a secular constitution on the model of a western democracy. However, what resulted was not secularism in the western sense of the word, but rather a ‘secular’ state with religious laws for its religious groups.
The forefathers of constitution who imposed several reforms upon the Hindu law were cowed down by the threats of islamists and kept the sharia strictly unaltered. Hence, the Muslims and the Christians had to be governed by their own set of laws.
The Hindu marriage act of 1955 extended to whole of India except the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The effect of the Hindu marriage act was to prohibit polygamy amongst Hindus and to increase the right of divorced wife to maintenance or alimony. The act applied to everyone in India except Muslim, Christians, Parsees and Jews. Since Jews and Parsees are a small minority remained de facto the only large community with a distinct religious law that had not been reformed to reflect modern concepts.
The legal practice of excluding Muslims continued with the passage of the dowry prohibition act of 1961 which specifically excluded, “dowry” or “mehr” in the case of persons to whom the Muslim personal law(shariat) applies”. In 1973 on a debate over the revision of the criminal procedure code, it was pointed out in regard to the maintenance of divorced wives that in cases involving Muslims, the court should take note as to whether the woman had received maintenance under the personal law.
Codification of Muslim law or enacting a Common Civil Code is a sensitive issue owing to its politicisation.
Some experts claim that there are operation problems in enacting the uniform civil code . They talk about a serious practical difficulty in adopting a uniform code of marriage since most people do not take the recourse to Special Marriage Act,1954 and prefer religiously formalized marriages . It is difficult to think of a common code borrowing from all religious and customs . It is also claimed that the proponents of the code haven’t given serious thought to what it would look like and how different religious customs associated with the solemnisation of marriages would be accommodated.
The biggest obstacle in implementing the UCC, apart from obtaining a consensus, is the drafting. Should UCC be a blend of all the personal laws or should it be a new law adhering to the constitutional mandate? There is a lot of literature churned out on UCC but there is no model law drafted. The UCC should carve a balance between protection of fundamental rights and religious dogmas of individuals. It should be a code, which is just and proper according to a man of ordinary prudence, without any bias with regards to religious or political consideration.
Role of the Judiciary :
In Mary Roy v. State of Kerala , the question argued before the Supreme Court was that certain provisions of the Travancore Christian Succession Act, 1916, were unconstitutional under Art. 14 Under these provisions, on the death of an intestate, his widow was entitled to have only a life interest terminable at her death or remarriage and his daughter. It was also argued that the Travancore Act had been superseded by the Indian Succession Act, 1925. The Supreme Court avoided examining the question whether gender inequality in matters of succession and inheritance violated Art.14, but , nevertheless, ruled that the Travancore Act had been superseded by the Indian Succession Act Mary Roy has been characterized as a ” ̃momentous’ decision in the direction of ensuring gender equality in the matter of succession.
Q2. The concept of cooperative federalism has been increasingly emphasized in recent years. Highlight the drawbacks in the existing structure and the extent to which cooperative federalism would answer the shortcomings.
Ans.Promoting cooperative federalism and giving States greater freedom in designing their development plans were two of the key objectives behind the setting up of the NITI Aayog. Chief Ministers, cutting across party lines, demanded that they be given such freedom, with Kerala Chief Minister Oommen Chandy pointing out that schemes such as Jan Dhan Yojana or Beti Bachao were of little relevance to his State which already boasted of superior metrics in both fields.
Similarly, Rajasthan’s CM demanded that the number of Centrally-sponsored schemes be reduced to 10, while Haryana CM Manohar Lal Khattar wanted such schemes to be dispensed with altogether. If these demands prove something, it is this: there can be no one-size-fits-all approach to development in a diverse country like India. And no longer can development be orchestrated from the Centre alone; it is as much the preserve, prerogative and responsibility of the States.
Thus, the NITI Aayog will stop with making recommendations; implementing them will be the responsibility of the States.
An important decision made at the meeting was to constitute a subgroup of Chief Ministers who would study the 66 Centrally-sponsored schemes to assess whether they should be continued, transferred to States or dropped altogether. While doing this assessment, care should be taken to ensure that socially important inclusion schemes are not either downgraded or dropped. There could be examples of schemes that may not have national relevance but have resonance with particular States; these should be identified with due care and alterations should be made only after a consensus is evolved in the Governing Council.
In this regard, it is encouraging to note that inclusion of the vulnerable and marginalised sections and redressing identity-based inequalities are at the top of the seven guiding principles for the Aayog as laid out in an e-book published by the government. This should also reassure those who see the body’s mandate as promoting a free-market economy which could come at the cost of the less-developed States. Of course, the true test of this government’s commitment to inclusive policies will come in the Budget’s allocations to social sector schemes. All the lofty ideals of the Aayog will come to naught if the government, forced by fiscal considerations, decides to set aside lower sums for social spending.
How can we achieve cooperative federalism:-
1.Indian federalism lives in the states and districts . So real challenges have to be initiated at these levels, else our democracy will remain an unfinished task.
2. Imbalances in fiscal federalism have created new obstacles in the path .
3.There is a need for better distribution of resource bases so that the dependency of states reduces , but access to resource does not .
4.There is a need to define the fiscal space of the local governments.
5.A reform of the seventh schedule lists in the direction of greater empowerment of States would be consistent with the logic of increased financial transfers and cooperative federalism. Locating the right level for making and implementing policy is a central feature of the cooperative responsibility matrix. etc.
Cooperative federalism vs Competitive federalism :
1.Cooperative federalism implies the Centre and states share a horizontal relationship, where they “cooperate” in the larger public interest. It’s visualised as an important tool to enable states’ participation in the formulation and implementation of national policies.
2.Sharing of powers and responsibilities between the three levels of government is a key element of the concept, which involves participative policymaking. This is particularly important in areas of concurrent responsibility, where the Centre has had a tendency to ride roughshod over the States by occupying the common legislative space. A reform of the seventh schedule lists in the direction of greater empowerment of States would be consistent with the logic of increased financial transfers and cooperative federalism.
3. In a free-market economy, the endowments of states, available resource base and their comparative advantages all foster a spirit of competition.
4. Fiscal constraints of the states have led to the proliferation of central schemes and national missions.etc.
Q3. In absence of a well-educated and organised local level government system, ‘panchayats’ and ‘Samitis’ have remained mainly political institutions and not effective instruments of governance. Critically discuss.
EDUCATON AS A CRITERIA FOR PANCHYAT ELECTIONS:-
1.The story starts with the issuing of ordinance by GOVT. in Rajasthan in December 2014. The ordinance specifies educational qualifications for persons contesting elections to local bodies.
2.The Rajasthan Panchayati Raj (2nd Amendment) Ordinance, 2014, promulgated by the Governor on December 20, 2014 less than a month before the panchayat and zilla parishad elections, amends Section 19 of the 1994 Act to expand the eligibility criteria by including educational qualifications for contesting the elections.
3.To contest a zilla parishad or panchayat samiti seat, a candidate must have passed class 10 of the Board of Secondary Education or its equivalent. To contest for the sarpanch’s post in a non-Scheduled area, a person must have passed class eight and in a Scheduled area class five.
4.Rajasthan had earlier amended the panchayati raj Act to debar persons having more than two children from contesting elections.
5.The “education ordinance” was preceded by an ordinance on December 8 which made it mandatory for a candidate to have a functional sanitary toilet, which meant a water-sealed toilet system or a set-up surrounded by three walls, a door and a roof.
Upholding the constitutional validity of a law enacted by Haryana government to bar the illiterate from contesting panchayat polls in the state, the Supreme Court ruled Thursday that “it is only education which gives a human being the power to discriminate between right and wrong, good and bad”.
The supporters of the such amendments in panchayat law say :- The Center is spending crores of money on panchayats and this goes directly to the sarpanch. There are thousands of pending cases of fund embezzlement against these elected representatives in the state and the standard excuse is that ‘I am illiterate and put my thumb impression on whatever papers were given to me’. Earlier the audits were managed by the state government so the accountability was not with the sarpanch but now with funds to the tune of crores coming in for projects like MNREGA and others, there has to be better accountability. Another argument is that the two child norm (those with more than two children will be disqualified from contesting the panchayat polls) has helped in checking population growth and similarly the education eligibility will have a positive impact.
The critics of such move are also many. They put forward following arguments:- As for embezzlement of funds the accountability should lie with government employees who are trained and qualified for the job. Be it MPs or MLAs, they do not sign cheques then why do sarpanches have to do so? Financial accountability should not lie with the sarpanch. The handling of such huge amounts is anyway a complex process and even if they were to have a certain educational qualification it would not serve the purpose. In Rajasthan the literacy rate of women in rural areas is only 45.8 percent, which is lower than the national literacy rate of 57.93 percent. In tribal areas, the situation is even worse with literacy rate of women 25.22 percent.
Q4. Khap Panchayats have been in the news for functioning as extra-constitutional authorities, often delivering pronouncements amounting to human rights violations. Discuss critically the actions taken by the legislative, executive and the judiciary to set the things right in this regard.
Khap panchayat is the union of a few villages, mainly in north India though it exists in similar forms in the rest of the country.
Khaps are kind of community organization which deliberates the social issues related to the community it represents and comes out with order or diktats. Khaps enjoy so much clout in their areas of operation that their orders and diktats are de facto enforced. In fact, Khaps are infamous for their diktats and orders some of which are very regressive in nature. Khaps control the community behavior especially of women. Any deviation from the accepted norms of behavior is sternly dealt with.
Why is the government not controlling the khaps?
1.The Khap Panchayats have been powerful due to the intrinsic weakness of the Panchayati Raj institutions which are democratically elected.
2.Further, the Jats, who make up 25% of the Haryana’s population, are the State’s largest caste group and are demographically a big number to be antagonized.
3.The government lacks will or way to act against the khaps. In many villages, because of no legal action against them, the authority of these khaps remains unquestioned.
4.Even the police tend to ignore the khap verdicts, regarding the declaration of death for offenders, because of the strong power and influence that these have acquired on people in villages overtime.
JUDICIARY ON KHAP PANCHAYATS
1.On April 19 2011, Supreme Court wants a strict criminal action against people forming and ruling in khaps, emphasizing that the khap panchayats are illegal and the honour killings they enforce to be “Barbaric and shameful”, along with demanding action against the police authorities and bureaucrats who fail to prevent them.
2.According to Supreme Court, these khap panchayats encourage honour killings or other atrocities in an institutionalized way on boys and girls belonging to different castes, who have been married or are going to get married.
3.On grounds that these khaps interfere with the personal life of the people, Justice Katju said, “Atrocities in respect of personal lives of people committed by brutal, feudal-minded persons deserve harsh punishment”.
4.Even after the continued cruel practices of these khaps for long and the crucial judgement by the Supreme Court, the heads of these panchayats have disapproved of the decision of the Supreme Court and said that they have been denied justice.
5.The supporters still stick to their view that these Khap Panchayats have been there since time immemorial under which laws have been formed by their forefathers for their own benefits and protection, and that the khaps do not aim to and nor they have harmed anyone.
6.Based on the All India Democratic Women’s Association’s recommendations, the High Courts of Punjab and Haryana passed an order to set up “couples’ protection homes” in every district in both the States.
7.However, according to activists, this has produced mixed results. However, there is increased pressure to shut down these homes from the caste panchayat, which has repeatedly been approaching the state government.
8.However, despite the flaws in the functioning of these homes, the way forward was to set similar protective spaces in all States while making them more responsive to the couples’ needs.etc…..
Q5. Resorting to ordinance has always raised concern on violation of the spirit of separation of powers doctrine. While noting the rationales justifying the power to promulgate ordinances, analyse whether the decisions of the Supreme Court on the issue have further facilitated resorting to this power. Should the power to promulgate ordinances be replaced?
Ans. Plz Wi8.
Q6. What are the major changes brought in the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 through the recent Ordinance promulgated by the President? How far will it improve India’s dispute resolution mechanism? Discuss.
Ans.The Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 (“Act”) has been amended by the Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Ordinance, 2015 (“Ordinance”), promulgated by the President of India on October 23, 2015. The Ordinance has introduced significant changes to the Act and seeks to address some of the issues, such as delays and high costs, which have been affecting arbitrations in India. The Ordinance is an attempt to make arbitration a preferred mode for settlement of commercial disputes and to make India a hub of international commercial arbitration. With the amendments, arbitrations in India are sought to be made more user-friendly and cost effective. The major changes brought about by the Ordinance are summarized in this update.
The Ordinance introduces a paradigm shift in the mode and method of grant of interim measures in an arbitration proceeding.
Recent judicial decisions had held that Part I of the Act would not apply to foreign seated arbitrations. The Ordinance has inserted a proviso to section 2 of the Act, whereby, sections 9, 27 and clause (a) of sub-section (1) and sub-section (3) of Section 37 (all falling in Part I of the Act) have been made applicable to international commercial arbitrations, even if the place of arbitration is outside India. As a result a party to an arbitration proceeding will be able to approach Courts in India for interim reliefs before the commencement of an arbitration proceeding, even if the seat of such arbitration is not in India.
Importantly, under the newly inserted section 9(3), a Court cannot, as a matter of course, entertain an application for interim measure once an arbitral tribunal has been constituted, unless the Court finds that circumstances exist which may not render the remedy available under section 17 of the Act, i.e. approaching the arbitral tribunal for interim measures, efficacious. The intention of the Legislature is to limit the involvement of Courts in an arbitration proceeding thereby making such proceedings swift and effective.
Another important change introduced by the Ordinance is the power of an arbitral tribunal to grant interim reliefs. Though the original section 17 of the Act afforded an arbitral tribunal the power to grant interim measures, it definitely did lack the saber- tooth. In this regard the Supreme Court of India had held that though section 17 of the Act gave an arbitral tribunal the power to pass interim orders, but the same could not be enforced as an order of a Court.
President Pranab Mukherjee has promulgated the Arbitration and Conciliation Amendment Ordinance, 2015 to amend the Arbitration and Conciliation Act 1996. The Ordinance is largely aimed at encouraging the ease of doing business in India in a bid to promote foreign investment. The following major amendments that have been proposed:
1.A distinction has been made as regards jurisdiction for international commercial arbitration, and for all other matters. For the former, the appropriate High Court shall have jurisdiction, whereas for the latter, the principal Civil Court of original jurisdiction or the High Court shall have jurisdiction.
2.The following sections shall apply to international commercial arbitration even when the place of arbitration is not in India:
– Section 9 which deals with interim measures by the Court;
– Section 27 that deals with Court assistance in taking evidence;
– Section 37(1)(a) which states than an appeal shall lie on orders granting or refusing to grant measures under Section 9; and
– Section 37(3) which states that no second appeal shall apply in such cases.
3. In case the arbitration agreement or certified copy thereof is not available to the party applying for reference for arbitration, such party can file an application requesting the Court to call upon the other party to produce the same.
4. If the court passes any interim measure under Section 9, the arbitral proceedings must commence within 90 days of the court doing so.
5. No application for interim measure under Section 9 shall be entertained after the arbitral tribunal has been constituted unless the remedies under Section 17 have been rendered inefficacious.
6. The High Court may frame rules for the purpose of determination of fees of the arbitral tribunal and the manner of its payment to the arbitral tribunal. However, such rules shall not apply to international commercial arbitration and in arbitrations where parties have agreed for determination of fees as per the rules of an arbitral institution.
Resolution mechanism or Some recommendations
ADR or “Alternative Dispute Resolution” is an attempt to devise machinery which should be capable of providing an alternative to the conventional methods of resolving disputes. ADR offers to resolve matters of litigants, whether in business causes or otherwise, who are not able to start any process of negotiation and reach any settlement. It has started gaining ground as against litigation and arbitration.
Advantage of Alternate Dispute Resolution: It is less expensive. It is less time consuming. It is free from technicalities as in the case of conducting cases in law Courts. The parties are free to discuss their difference of opinion without any fear of disclosure of this fact before any law Courts. The last but not the least is the fact that parties are having the feeling that there is no losing or winning feeling among the parties by at the same time they are having the feeling that their grievance is redressed and the relationship between the parties is restored.
Legislative recognition of Alternative Dispute Redressal:-
1.The Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 brought about the establishment of Lok Adalat System for settlement of disputes cheaply and expeditiously and also in the spirit of compromise by give and take formula.
2.Section 30 of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 encourages arbitrators, with the agreement of the parties, to use mediation, conciliation or other procedures at any time during the arbitration proceedings to encourage settlement.
3. Further still, the Civil Procedure Code (Amendment) Act, 1999 carries Section 89 which is designed to enable the courts to bring about a settlement of dispute outside the Court. As and when the Amendment comes to be enforced, the four methods listed in the section and known as court-ordered or court- annexed ADRs would become statutory alternatives to litigation for settlement of disputes and would be legally enforceable.
Q7. Does the right to clean environment entail legal regulations on burning crackers during Diwali? Discuss in the light of Article 21 of the Indian Constitution and Judgement(s) of the Apex Court in this regard.
Q8. Examine critically the recent changes in the rules governing foreign funding of NGOs under the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA), 1976.
Ans.The recent changes in the rules governing foreign funding of NGOs under the Foreign Contribution Regulation Act (FCRA) have been widely discussed. The last word on it will perhaps never be written. The UPA government initiated this and we see some concrete changes now. Sifting through the bewildering range of issues discussed, a few stand out. First, there is a sharp polarisation on the issue between the government and civil society, and even within civil society. Second, the polarisation is based on lack of trust, bordering on fear, with each group highlighting faults of the other.
Behind all this are differing ideas of India we all hold. It is ironical that what is at stake is not that important — a relatively small amount of money that does not significantly help or harm India. The total FCRA funds coming in was Rs.11,546.29 crore for 2011-12, the latest year for which the government has put out figures. Of this, the funds for explicitly religious activities were to the tune of Rs.270.83 crore; Rs.227.4 crore for maintenance of priests, and Rs.208.71 crore for religious schools, together coming to 6.12 per cent of total foreign funding.
Similarly, those that are clearly identifiable as lobbying advocacy, awareness building, and so on, are Rs.539 crore for research and Rs. 241 crore for awareness, or 6.76 % of total foreign funding. Even if all these funds are used for anti-national activities, what will we do if they are domestically funded? The major uses of foreign funds are for rural development, education of the poor, health, and so on. Out of 22,702 NGOs registered under FCRA, 13,193 actually received grants, making it on average Rs.87.52 lakh per NGO that year. About 9,000 NGOs have rightly got their FCRA permissions cancelled for not submitting accounts or responding to repeated reminders.
In short, foreign funding of NGOs is dwarfed by other foreign money coming into India. Of this, the amount used for potentially questionable purposes is about 13%. Let us look at another set of issues. All organisations working in society need to be transparent and accountable, including NGOs, whether domestically or foreign funded. The RTI tries to do that for the government. But beyond the NGOs, corporates and the government, there are political parties and religious organisations.
The Maharashtra Government has passed an ordinance that an FIR cannot be filed against legislators and senior officers without prior approval to avoid frivolous allegations. But there is no protection for ordinary citizens against harassment whether by the police, income tax or other authorities.The government has publicly used the phrase ‘tax terrorism,’ but has so far done nothing to protect the citizen. It is well known that several religious organisations and their affiliates receive foreign funding. Those that indulge in anti-national and subversive activities will not be affected by the new FCRA rules — their work is underground.
Recently government cancelled the registrations of around 1400 NGOs citing following reasons:
1)They did not comply with section 18 of FCRA,which forces them to file their annual return.
2)They openly violated other provisions of the act which makes them not to spend more than 50% of its funding it its administration.
3)Government has alleged that some of them are involved in the activities which are detrimental to nation’s security.
4)Their methods of action such as direct action,lobbying are seen as an impediment to our economic progress.
Though the legislation is in full competence of the government , but it has gone too far beyond because:
1)NGOs are the civil institutions which are key in proper functioning of proper democracy.It is well within the right of society to have a right to dissent.
2)NGOs in many ways assists the government plans and schemes by conducting surveys,providing their valuable input etc,
3)It would deprive the country of much needed foreign exchange.
4)Since many of the organizations have got international credibility,government’s reputation will take a severe blow.etc.
Q9. The Self-Help Group (SHG) Bank Linkage Programme (SBLP), which is India’s own innovation, has proved to be one of the most effective poverty alleviation and women empowerment programmes. Elucidate.
SHG bank linkage means that the opening up of bank accounts of SHG, and providing them, formal credit, saving opportunity and technical assistance on viable projects. NABARD provides assistance to banks for refinancing the activities The SHG – Bank Linkage Programme was started as an Action Research Project in 1989 which was the offshoot of a NABARD initiative during 1987 through sanctioning Rs. 10 lakh to MYRADA as seed money assistance for experimenting Credit Management Groups. In the same year the Ministry of Rural Development provided PRADAN with support to establish self-help groups in Rajasthan. The SHG – Bank Linkage Programme is a major plank of the strategy for delivering financial services to the poor in a sustainable manner.
The search for such alternatives started with internal introspection regarding the innovations which the poor had been traditionally making, to meet their financial services needs. It was observed that the poor tended to come together in a variety of informal ways for pooling their savings and dispensing small and unsecured loans at varying costs to group members on the basis of need. The experiences of these early efforts led to the approval of a pilot project by NABARD in 1992. The pilot project was designed as a partnership model between three agencies, viz., the SHGs, banks and NGOs. This was reviewed by a working group in 1995 that led to the evolution of a streamlined set of RBI approved guidelines to banks to enable SHGs to open bank accounts, based on a simple “inter se” agreement. This was coupled with a commitment by NABARD to provide refinance and promotional support to banks for the SHG – Bank Linkage Programme.
Positive Features of the SHG – Bank Linkage Programme:-
The financial inclusion attained through SHGs is sustainable and scalable on account of its various positive features. The programme confronts many challenges and for further scaling up, these challenges need to be addressed.
Financial Inclusion of Poor Women The Committee noted that more than 90% of the members of SHGs are women and most of them are poor and assetless. The SHG movement has been instrumental in mainstreaming women by-passed by the banking system.
Loan Repayments One of the distinctive features of the SHG – Bank Linkage Programme has been very high on-time recovery. As on June 2005, the on-time recovery under SHG – Bank Linkage Programme was 90% in commercial banks, 87% in RRBs and 86% in cooperative banks.
1.Reduced the incidence of poverty through increase in income, and also enabled the poor to build assets and thereby reduce their vulnerability.
2.Enabled households that have access to it to spend more on education than nonclient households. Families participating in the programme have reported better school attendance and lower drop out rates.
3.Empowered women by enhancing their contribution to household income, increasing the value of their assets and generally by giving them better control over decisions that affect their lives.
4.Reduced child mortality, improved maternal health and the ability of the poor to combat disease through better nutrition, housing and health – especially among women and children.
5.Contributed to a reduced dependency on informal money lenders and other noninstitutional sources.
6.Facilitated significant research into the provision of financial services for the poor and helped in building “capacity” at the SHG level.etc.
1.Group Loans to SHGs and SHG Loans to Member.
2.Cost Recovery and Sustainability It is important for banks to carefully work out their actual costs for SHG lending. While the SHG portfolio is often only a small part of the total bank lending, and since the portfolio quality is good, it may be possible to reduce interest rates while ensuring recovery of costs.
3.Regional Imbalances 7.19 The spread of the SHG – Bank Linkage Programme in different regions has been uneven on account of various factors like pro-active role of State Governments, presence of well performing NGOs, socio-cultural factors, better performance of SHGs, etc. In March, 2001, 71% of the linked SHGs were from Southern Region consisting of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
Amendment to NABARD Act 7.59 At present, NABARD is permitted, as per its Act and Mandate, to support micro finance activities in rural and semi-urban areas only. Considering the levels of exclusion prevalent among the urban poor, the unique nature of difficulties faced by them in accessing institutionalized banking services and with a view to leveraging the expertise of NABARD in microfinance, the Committee recommends that an enabling provision be made in the NABARD Act, 1981 permitting NABARD to provide micro finance services to the urban poor.
Q10. How can the role of NGOs be strengthened in India for development works relating to protection of the environment? Discuss throwing light on the major constraints.
There is a growing environmental awareness amongst stakeholders, individuals and communities within the Asian and Pacific Region. This increase in knowledge and awareness has been, by and large, the result of campaigns and education programmes run by major public interest groups concerned with the environment. These include non-governmental organizations (NGOs) at the international, regional and national levels, as well as groups concerned with the empowerment of marginalized sections of society, such as women, indigenous peoples, and youth groups, and other community based organizations.
ROLE OF NGOs & MAJOR GROUPS
Traditionally, community based organizations played an important role in the management of common property resources such as forests and fisheries in the Asian and Pacific Region. Although over successive years their role was reduced by governments in some countries, recent years have seen a re-emergence of community involvement and the development and growth of NGOs, youth, women and indigenous people’s groups and associations of farmers and businessmen. NGOs have, in particular, played an important role in raising environmental concerns, developing awareness of environmental issues and promoting sustainable development.The encouragement of public participation in environmental management through legislation in recent years has also enhanced the role of NGOs and Major Groups.
For example, in Thailand, Article 56 of the 1997 Constitution recognizes the rights of people to participate in the protection of natural resources and environment. Similar provisions have been made, for example, in the Philippines, New Zealand (Resource Management Act), Azerbaijan (EPA 1999) and the Australian Landcare and Coast Care programmes.In recent years, the range of activities undertaken by environmental NGOs and other major groups has broadened. They now undertake a much wider range of activities than simply raising environmental awareness and/or acting as pressure groups. Their activities now include environmental monitoring; promoting environmental education, training and capacity-building; implementing demonstration projects; conducting advocacy work in partnership with the government; and the promotion of regional and international cooperation on environment.
A website that has been specifically developed to facilitate regional networking is ECANET (Environmental Communication Asia Network, Website 21), developed and operated by AMIC. Support for this website has been provided by the ADB and UNESCO. The website disseminates information on environmental groups in the region, bibliography on environmental information (including websites) and environmental success stories written by Asian journalists.
This website has links with over 6 800 national and international institutions, NGOs, industrial and commercial enterprises, academics and experts from around the world. Small NGOs and CBOs particularly in rural areas of Asia and the Pacific are slow in harnessing the benefits from internet and world wide web. It is important to strengthen their capacities in this respect so that they could take full advantage of the growing information technology which provides tantamount opportunities not only for networking both nationwide and worldwide, but also for strengthening the capacities of major groups, especially NGOs.
Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement
All the major groups identified in Agenda 21 are involved in decision making in different capacities. Participation of these groups is ensured through consultative meetings and discussions at local, state and national levels.
Government of India has made public hearings mandatory for developmental projects wherein affected person, stakeholders are given opportunity of hearing/discussion before arriving at a decision. Public participation is also an important step in every major decision for social, economic and sustainable development. Participation is encouraged by bringing in transparency in decision making.
Major groups which participate in international cooperation activities programmes are indigenous groups, NGOs, Industrial Associates, Investigators, Research Institutions, Advocates, etc. The Government facilitate the participation of various groups in arriving at a decision in a more participatory manner.
India has had modest, but increasing success in attracting private capital flows. Furthermore, much of these private capital inflows into India have been of the non-debt creating variety, which has helped boost the balance of payments as well as the availability of invertible resources in the economy. The international community is very positive about India’s effort to achieve a high rate of growth. After the advent of liberalization which was initiated in 1991, the involvement of private sector (local and foreign) has been encouraged.
Global Environment Facility through the World Bank, UNDP and UNEP: India is the second largest recipient of GEF funding. The salient feature of the GEF portfolio are: a diverse and varied portfolio comprising projects that are environmentally, socially and financially sustainable; projects involving a range of issues and approaches to address the questions of innovation, experimentation, demonstration, cost effectiveness and replicability; projects that are country-driven, based on national priorities; capacity building, human resources and skills at the community level and into Government.
The Country cooperation Framework- I Environment Programme through the UNDP: Development Objective: The thrust areas reflect the national policy and plan statements – (i) management of natural resources (ii) capacity building for decision making (iii) management of development (iv) information, advocacy and participation.
Montreal protocol: The Protocol sets out a time schedule for freeze and reduction of ODS or controlled substances. A Multilateral Fund was established by the parties to assist developing countries meet the control measures as specified in the Protocol. It assists the Government and the industry to design, implement, monitor and evaluate ODS phase-out projects and programmes in the aerosols/foam/solvent refrigeration and fire extinguishing sectors, covering large, medium and small scale enterprises. The MOEF is the national executing agency for the Institutional Strengthening projects for the phase-out of ODSs under the Montreal Protocol. In Asia, India is number three in receiving funds for CFC phase out programme, next to China and Malaysia.
Capacity 21 Initiative: There is only one Capacity 21 project in India which is being implemented by the Indira Gandhi Institute for Development Research (IGIDR) through the Ministry of Environment & Forests. The main objective of the project is to build capacity at various levels of Government, national institutes and the community at large through NGOs by introducing concepts of environmental economics into their resource use and planning decisions. Specific interventions of natural resource accounting through practical applications at policy and field levels include – Air quality, Water Quality, Biodiversity and Common Property Resources. IGIDR have come out with documentation on the above areas.
Q11. The quality of higher education in India requires major improvements to make it internationally competitive. Do you think that the entry of foreign educational institutions would help improve the quality of higher and technical education in the country? Discuss.
Ans.India has one of the largest systems of higher education in the world. Higher education has expanded significantly after independence in terms of quality and range of fields of knowledge.T he overall scenario of higher education in India does not match with the global Quality standards. Hence, there is enough justification for an increased assessment of the Quality of the country’s educational institutions. Traditionally, these institutions assumed that Quality could be determined by their internal resources, viz., faculty with an impressive set of degrees and experience detailed at the end of the institute’s admission brochure, number of books and journals in the library, an ultra-modern campus, and size of the endowment, etc., or by its definable and assessable outputs, viz., efficient use of resources, producing uniquely educated, highly satisfied and employable graduates.
Role of the Indian Government and Private Sector in Higher Education
Higher Education in India at the undergraduate level and above is controlled and monitored by the University Grants Commission. Accreditation for higher learning is overseen by 12 autonomous institutions established by the University Grants Commission. Since the onset of Indian independence all the governments at the centre have been focusing heavily on education. Most five year plans, more significantly the last and the current i.e. the 11th and the 12th plans have made significant contributions and provisions for improving reach and quality of education across the country.The Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-2017) confronts the challenges facing India’s higher education system and has proposed several initiatives to resolve them. These include increased funding for disadvantaged groups, imbibing cutting-edge technologies, faculty improvement programmes, improved governance and provision of incentives for advanced research.
The government of India has been actively promoting the participation of the private sector in promoting the reach of higher education. Over last two decades, a growing Indian economy has led to spectacular demand for educated and skilled labour. To match the manpower needs of an accelerating economy, private players have sprung up unstoppably to complement government education institutions. Over the past few decades, it has actually been the private sector that has been driving capacity-creation in Indian higher education.
In terms of human and physical resource there has been tremendous change in this area. There has been enormous increase in the number of students, teachers and educational institutions.The Central government must finance entirely all the universities and colleges in the country. Appropriate structural transformation that would maintain uniformity while granting sufficient autonomy can be evolved for higher education institutions across the country. A paradigm shift is needed with a focus on the use of new technologies and better utilization of existing capacity. An innovative model of Public-Private Partnership should be developed to seek private participation in higher education without compromising the quality and equity.
Q12. Public health system has limitations in providing universal health coverage. Do you think that the private sector could help in bringing the gap? What other viable alternatives would you suggest?
Ans:- 20th Pradanya, an international conference on Universal Health Coverage- Road Map for 2020, will be held in Jaipur on October 3 and 4, 2015. Delegates at this international level platform will be able to share ideas and innovations and the conference will serve as a platform for healthcare leaders and professionals to share best practices, exchange ideas and discuss strategies on how to spend least amount of resources while achieving the best outcomes. According to WHO, UHC means providing all people with access to affordable, quality health care services in order to ensure that they “obtain the health services they need without suffering financial hardship when paying for them”.
Evidence that universal health coverage is necessary but insufficient to achieve health goals:-
Countries that have advanced in implementation of UHC still face unresolved challenges, such as persistent health inequities (linked to social determinants of health and/or discrimination) and inadequate quality of services (due to inadequate health infrastructure or a mismatch in health care personnel and health care needs). Thus, while Brazil, Mexico and Rwanda’s universal health coverage policies show increasing utilization of services, major shortcomings remain.In Mexico, inequality and inequities in availability of health resources persist across states and within states – and rural vs. urban areas – that lead to differences in health outcomes
Implications for sexual and reproductive health and rights
Sexual and reproductive health and rights may be systematically neglected in many ‘essential services packages’ but we contend that three factors in particular require attention within and beyond the health sector to secure sexual and reproductive health and rights for women: accessibility, national legal and policy frameworks and social norms.
Universal health coverage and the post-2015 development agenda
Despite many calls for action and UN commitments, progress on sexual and reproductive health and rights lags behind the other MDGs. While some countries have shied away from fulfilling their obligations of delivering sexual and reproductive health services on the basis of political or religious opposition, others have simply failed to consider women’s needs and rights as a priority because of social norms that subordinate women. In still others, the policies exist on paper but too few resources are committed to make them a reality. With regards to the aid of private sector in public healthcare. While the primary healthcare is the most nascent stage in the health care system and it is available through private aid as well in case of emergency, it is the secondary and tertiary healthcare where our institutional framework lacks and the point of universal access to health falters. So with this reason being the foremost, secondary and tertiary healthcare needs to made accessible via private aid.
Public prive partnership (PPP Model) would be a better alternative. eg- secondary and tertiary healthcare such as surgery and transplant respectivey could be subsidised. Generally the infra deficiency in public health centres is the foremost reason why people suffer..so one alternative here could be to utilize the infra via private aid which is generally more efficient whereas the manpower of public health institutes could be effectively utilized. Or…in nutshell it could be a mix of public and private.
So, main question is how to finance UHC?
1.Ensure availibilty of free essential medicines by increasing public spending on drug procurement.( increase public spending from 0.1% of GDP at present to around 0.5% of GDP).
2.Expenditure on primary health care should be atleast 70% of all health care expenditures and should cover General health information and promotion, curative services at primary level and screening for risk factors at the population level.
3.Use general taxation as a principal source of health care financing.
4.Do not levy any kind of user fees for use of health care services under UHC.
5.All govt funded insurance schemes should be eventually merged with UHC.
6.To address regional variation of capacity of health care delivery with in India, additional funds should be allocated should be made to such regions.etc
It is clear from the preceding analysis that no ideal health care exists and that each system examined has its shortcomings. The U.S. health care system is one of the most technologically advanced in the world, but increasing costs, declining access, and growing public dissatisfaction indicate that the system is in crisis. The national debate over reform of the ailing U.S. health care system continues to focus on the roles of the private and public sectors in the health care arena. Should health care be treated like any other good or service and be competitively bought and sold, or should it be treated as a public good guaranteed and regulated by the government? Clinton’s proposals for health care reform generally embrace an approach known as mangaged competition, providing for a combination of competition and regulation.
Q13. Though there have been several different estimates of poverty in India, all indicate reduction in poverty levels over time. Do you agree? Critically examine with reference to urban and rural poverty indicators.
Q14. In the light of the Satyam Scandal (2009), discuss the changes brought in corporate governance to ensure transparency, accountability.
Q15. “If amendment bill to the Whistleblowers Act, 2011 tabled in the Parliament is passed, there may be no one left to protect.” Critically evaluate.
Q16. “For achieving the desired objectives, it is necessary to ensure that the regulatory institutions remain independent and autonomous”. Discuss in the light of experience in the recent past. plz wait.
Q17. Increasing interest of India in Africa has its pros and cons. Critically examine.
Ans.The third India-Africa Summit will be held at the Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium in New Delhi on October 29. The third summit also promises to be a milestone and will be much bigger and grander than the two previous summits held in New Delhi (2008) and Addis Ababa (2011) as this is the first time India is inviting the leaders of all 54 African countries to the forum summit. The third summit is expected to raise the bar and will build upon substantive outcomes and plans outlined in the 2008 New Delhi Declaration and 2011 Addis Ababa Declaration and Africa-India Framework for Enhanced Cooperation.
Africa–India relations refers to the historical, political, economic, military,helper and cultural connections between the India and the African continent. Historical relations concerned mainly India and Eastern Africa. Jawaharlal Nehru and Indira Gandhi forged India’s enduring links with Africa through their uncompromising support for the continent’s decolonisation process and struggle against Apartheid.
India’s Former PM said, that the Africa is “emerging as a new growth pole of the world” and that India’s partnership with the continent based on the three pillars of capacity-building and skill transfer, trade and infrastructure development was a “living embodiment of South-South cooperation.”
Convergence Between India and Africa
1.Resurgence, Renewal and Renaissance.
2.Democracy, Development, and Demographic Dividend.
3.Trade, Technology and Training.
4.Both are marked by geo-economic diversity. Just as coastal India is more developed than the landlocked regions, coastal Africa is more developed than inland Africa, except where nature has blessed it with oil and other valuable commodities.
The development of modern-day relations has gone through two main periods. During the period ofcolonialism and liberation wars, political relations became stronger. India’s commitment to decolonisation through nonviolent means made it relatively reluctant to provide military assistance to national liberation movements. India’s role in East Africa was also constrained by the large Indian ethnic population that was often resented by black African nationalists. Africa is complex, diverse, with numerous fault lines. India has wisely kept aloof from its internal politics. It has also pursued the same approach in its assistance programme. India is among the largest troop contributors to the UN Peace Keeping Force in Africa.
In the context of trade relation India’s trade with Africa has increased from $39 billion in 2009-10 to $71.4 billion in 2014-15, with the surge in exports than imports.The Indian private sector is making considerable investments in agriculture, telecom and automobiles, among others.Both the regions in J une signed a tripartite free trade agreement (TFTA) to boost their economic relationship.
Add to this potent mix, the demographic dividend, shared by both India and Africa, with the bulk of their population in the age group 19-35. The emergence of a new generation of quality-conscious middle class consumers has enhanced the attractiveness quotient of both Africa and India.
Authorities in China have invested in a systematic, institutionalised campaign to purge at least the educated urban Chinese of their racial prejudice against ‘black’ Africans. Without a change of attitude at the people-to-people level, mere summitry at the top and government-sponsored events are unlikely to bring India and Africa closer to each other. Regional diversity- If India is a sum of its diversities, so is Africa, in every sense of the term. Indian Diaspora in Africa provides a cultural link.
The collapse of Libya in 2010 and the general unrest in north Africa has caused instability all through the Sahel region now flooded with arms, illicit drugs and terrorist groups. The of terrorist and extremist groups in the continent like Al-Qaeda in the Maghreb, Nigeria-based Boko Haram, and Al-Shabaab and their suspected links with militants in other parts of the world entails a more proactive collaboration between India and Africa on the issue of terrorism. Thus, terrorism is a major challenge for both.
Q18. Discuss the impediments India is facing in its pursuit of a permanent seat in UN Security Council.
Q19. Project ‘Mausam’ is considered as a unique foreign policy initiative of the Indian government to improve relationship with its neighbours. Does the project has a strategic dimension? Discuss.
What is MAUSAM: This is a transnational initiative that aims at revival of India’s ancient maritime routes and cultural linkages with the countries of the Indian Ocean Region (IOR). The project aimed for reviving the ancient links among countries of the Indian Ocean to expand the base of Delhi’s soft power diplomacy.
1.to deepen cultural bonding
2.to ensure maritime security
3.to broaden economic connectivity with nations of the IOR.
The project is supposed to have both a cultural and serious strategic dimension. Perhaps one thing India could consider is seriously developing its Andaman and Nicobar Islands as a security and trade zone. The Economist recently reported on some Indian steps to do just that, which is sensible given the islands’ location close to the strategically important Straits of Malacca and Thailand. However, India has yet to reveal actual details on the policies and projects that it intends to pursue to advance Project Mausam.
It is clear that India’s government intends to expand its maritime presence, culturally, strategically and psychologically (in order to remind the region why the ocean is called the Indian Ocean). Despite the lack of details, Project Mausam seems like a positive step in that direction and one that will generally be well-received. It is to be hoped, however, that the project is meaningful and does not lack teeth, like many other Indian initiatives of the past. The fact that Narendra Modi’s government is initiating Project Mausam, however, at least gives one assurance that the Indian government is not launching another arbitrary and half-hearted initiative.
India is using its history, culture and geography to compete with China’s “Maritime Silk Road.”
China has expressed its readiness to work with India to link its ambitious Maritime Silk Route plans with India’s “Mausam” project in a bid to address New Delhi’s strategic concerns and derive “common benefitsDefence secretary RK MathurChina has expressed itswillingness to work with India to link its Maritime Silk Route plans with India’s Mausam Project, which will address India’s strategic concern and derive common benefits. The call for policy coordination followed the Chinese President Xi Jinping formally launching the multibillion dollar Silk Road and Maritime Silk Road projects.
Chinese Ambassador to India Le Yuchenghas remarked that “the One Belt and One Road initiatives can also be linked with India’s Spice Route and Mausam projects,” Whereas Mausam aimed at re-establishing India’s ancient maritime routes with its ancient trade partners in and along the Indian Ocean. Similarly, the “Spice Route of India” refers to the ancient network of sea routes that linked Asia, Europe and Africa.
Recently, a possible “Indo-Pacific Arc” has drawn a great deal of attention from regional and international observers. It is an old concept brought up by Australians, but has been heatedly discussed in India in recent years. The objective of the strategy is to link the Indian Ocean with the Western Pacific Ocean.
China to integrate Mongolian, Russian initiatives with MSR