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1. Comment on the following in about 150 words each:

(a) Idea of Natural Rights

Ans. Natural rights mean Rights that people supposedly have under natural law. Natural law mean an ethical belief or system of beliefs supposed to be inherent in human nature and Discoverable by reason rather than revelation. The Declaration of Independence of the United States lists life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness as natural rights. Theory of Might is right is very popular in natural rights which mean “those who are powerful can do what they wish unchallenged, even if their action is in fact unjustified”.

In classical political philosophy “natural right” refers to the objective rightness of the right things, whether the virtue of a soul, the correctness of an action, or the excellence of a regime. Thus Aristotle says in Politics that no one would call a man happy who was completely lacking in courage, temperance, justice, or wisdom. A man who was easily frightened, unable to restrain any impulse toward food or drink, willing to ruin his friends for a trifle, and generally senseless could not possibly lead a good life.The virtues and actions that contribute to the good life, and the activities intrinsic to the good life, are naturally right.

Natural rights on the other hand, are the rights that all men possess, because of which they may be obligated to act, or to refrain from acting, in certain ways. According to the teaching developed primarily by Hobbes and Locke, there are many natural rights, but all of them are inferences from one original right, the right that each man has to preserve his life. All other natural rights, like the right to liberty and the right to property, are necessary inferences from the right of self-preservation, or are conceived as implicit in the exercise of that primary right. Similarly, the natural law founded upon natural rights consists of deductions made from the primary right and its implications.

Locke assumed that humans were by nature rational and good, and that they carried into political society the same rights they had enjoyed in earlier stages of society, foremost among them being freedom of worship, the right to a voice in their own government, and the right of property. Jean Jacques Rousseau attempted to reconcile the natural rights of the individual with the need for social unity and cooperation through the idea of the social contract. The most important elaboration of the idea of natural rights came in the North American colonies, however, where the writings of Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Adams, and Thomas Paine made of the natural rights theory a powerful justification for revolution.

(b) Aristotle’s Conception of Equality

Ans. Aristotle rarely addresses the concept of equality explicitly or independently of a larger point. He does, however, make statements that one could manipulate in order to hypothesize what his view on equality might consist of, if enunciated, and these statements are with regard to economic and not just civil and political equality. According to Aristotle The worst form of inequality is to try to make unequal things equal. Aristotle describes three regime forms in Book Three: rule by one, rule by few, and rule by many.

Economic Equality within the Aristocracy :-This arrangement seems to describe not one city, but two, or a city within a city. In thepostlude, I discuss the consequences of such an arrangement. Our central concern in this essay isequality, and whether we can discover if Aristotle finds either political or economic equality (or both) beneficial, and under what circumstances. Clearly, under his best regime, the aristocracy, equality is not only unimportant, it is to be avoided. In order to create a virtuous few, some of the city’s residents must be slaves and subjects with no political rights.

Various Principles:-

Formal Equality:- When two persons have equal status in at least one normatively relevant respect, they must be treated equally with regard to this respect.This is the generally accepted formal equality principle that Aristotle formulated in reference to Plato: “treat like cases as like”. 

Proportional Equality:- According to Aristotle, there are two kinds of equality, numerical and proportional. A form of treatment of others or as a result of it a distribution is equal numerically when it treats all persons as indistinguishable, thus treating them identically or granting them the same quantity of a good per capita. That is not always just. In contrast, a form of treatment of others or distribution is proportional or relatively equal when it treats all relevant persons in relation to their due. Just numerical equality is a special case of proportional equality.

Moral Equality:- Until the eighteenth century, it was assumed that human beings are unequal by nature, that there was a natural human hierarchy. This postulate collapsed with the advent of the idea of natural right and its assumption of an equality of natural order among all human beings. Against Plato and Aristotle, the classical formula for justice according to which an action is just when it offers each individual his or her due took on a substantively egalitarian meaning in the course of time, viz. everyone deserved the same dignity and the same respect. This is now the widely held conception of substantive, universal, moral equality.etc.

(c) ‘Difference Principle’ in Rawls’ Theory of Justice

In A Theory of Justice, Rawls argues for a principled reconciliation of liberty and equality, it is meant to apply to the basic structure of a well-ordered society. Rawls belongs to the social contract tradition. However, Rawls’ social contract takes a different view from that of previous thinkers. Specifically, Rawls develops what he claims are principles of justice through the use of an artificial device he calls the Original position in which everyone decides principles of justice from behind a veil of ignorance.

The Two Principles of Justice

The First Principle of Justice “First: each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty compatible with a similar liberty for others.”The basic liberties of citizens are the political liberty to vote and run for office, freedom of speech and assembly, liberty of conscience, freedom of personal property and freedom from arbitrary arrest.

The Second Principle of Justice

Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that 

(a) they are to be of the greatest benefit to the least-advantaged members of society, consistent with the just savings principle (the difference principle).

 (b) offices and positions must be open to everyone under conditions of fair equality of opportunity

Rawls argues that self-interested rational persons behind the veil of ignorance would choose two general principles of justice to structure society in the real world:

Principle of equal liberty:-Each person has an equal right to the most extensive liberties compatible with similar liberties for all. (Egalitarian.)

Difference principle:- Social and economic inequalities should be arranged so that they are both (a) to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged persons, and (b) attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of equality of opportunity.

Distributive Justice

Distributive principles vary in numerous dimensions. They vary in what is considered relevant to distributive justice (income, wealth, opportunities, jobs, welfare, etc.) in the nature of the recipients of the distribution (individual persons, groups of persons, reference classes, etc.) and on what basis the distribution should be made equality, maximization, according to individual characteristics, according to free transactions, etc.

In 1974, Rawls’ colleague at Harvard, Robert Nozick, published a defense of libertarian justice, Anarchy, State, and Utopia. Another Harvard colleague, Michael Walzer, wrote a defense of communitarian political philosophy, Spheres of Justice, as a result of a seminar he co-taught with Nozick. In a related line of criticism, Michael Sandel, also a Harvard colleague, wrote Liberalism and the Limits of Justice, in which he criticized Rawls for asking us to think about justice while divorced from the values and aspirations that define who we are as persons and that allow us to determine what justice is.

(d) Difference between Participatory and Deliberative Democracy.

Participatory democracy is a process emphasizing the broad participation of constituents in the direction and operation of political systems. Etymological roots of democracyimply that the people are in power and thus that all democracies are participatory. Participatory democracy is comprised of forms of democracy whereby citizens invest their time and knowledge to participate in informed decision-making on laws and policy.

Deliberative democracy is a variant of participatory democracy. In a deliberative democracy, citizens invest time to deliberate or authentically weigh all arguments before voting or deciding by consensus on the laws which will govern them. If citizens cannot come to a consensus after deliberation, then laws are enacted by majority vote. This deliberative process is what gives laws their legitimacy.

(e) Gandhi’s Views on State

In Gandhi’s assessment, the state (Western type) was the symbol of violence in concentrated form. In order to ensure allegiance from the citizens the state (which means its authority) applies coercion or violent measures mercilessly.

State and Ram Raj: Definition and NatureProf. Jayantanuja Bandyopadhyay has defined Ram Raj (literally Divine Rule) in the following words: “It is possible to distinguish between two levels of the social and political thought of Gandhi-the ideal and the practical.Rama or Rahim were of equal importance to him. By Ram Raj is meant sovereignty of people on pure moral authority.

Sovereignty of State: Gandhi was not interested at all in building up a comprehensive and well-argued political theory. He was a mass leader, philosopher and freedom fighter. On various issues and situations he expressed opinions which constitute certain aspects of political theory and state sovereignty is such a theory. In Western political thought, state sovereignty is a much talked theory and large number of scholars and philosophers has dealt with this concept. Bodin and Hobbes are chief among them.

Popular Sovereignty: “Gandhi was an ardent advocate not of traditional state sovereignty but of popular sovereignty strongly advocated by one of the social contract theoreticians.” J. J. Rousseau (1712-1778). Rousseau wanted to introduce popular sovereignty of the Greek city-state in his home state. In the scheme of Rousseau’s popular sovereignty the citizens had the opportunity to assemble in open places periodically and to participate in the variety of functions of state. Gandhi contemplated the same type of popular sovereignty for India.

State and Society: Though Gandhi does not deal with society and its relationship with state it is not difficult to frame certain conclusions about his attitude to society keeping his general outlook and philosophy in mind. His inordinate love for liberty rights of the individual and democracy and strong opposition to violence and coercion make it abundantly clear that he stressed more importance on society and less importance to state.

In his judgment society is the best place for the free play of individual’s opinion, in society people enjoy freedom of speech and expression and mainly in society individuals get ample opportunities to mould and remould their views This is due to the fact that the area of state is vast and always it is not suitable for individual’s tree and spontaneous activities.

2.(a) Examine the challenges to sovereignty of the State in the contemporary world.

contemporary challenges

Although many see threats to state sovereignty from a wide variety of sources, many of these can be grouped in three broad areas: the rise of human rights, economic globalization, and the growth of supranational institutions, the latter being partially driven by economic integration and the cause of human rights. The emergence of human rights as a subject of concern in international law effects sovereignty because these agreed upon principles place clear limits on the authority of governments to act within their borders.

The growth of multinational corporations and the free flow of capital have placed constraints on states’ ability to direct economic development and fashion social and economic policy. Finally, both to facilitate and to limit the more troubling effects of these developments, along with a range of other purposes, supranational organizations have emerged as a significant source of authority that, at least to some degree, place limits on state sovereignty. It is too early to tell for certain, but recent US action in Afghanistan and Iraq suggest that sovereignty will be further constrained in the fight against transnational terrorism.

The Protection of Human Rights: NGOs emerged in the 1960s-70s fighting for the cause of human rights. Groups such asAmnesty International and Human Rights Watch serve as watchdogs to publicize the human rights record of governments limiting state action in some ways. The publicity is sometimes enough to alter state behavior. At other times, the information serves to prompt other states to applydiplomatic pressure, economic sanctions, and increasingly common to contemplate humanitarian intervention. In the 1990s, the Security Council began to reinterpret the Charter to more frequently favor human rights over the protection of state sovereignty. Through a series of resolutions, the United Nations has justified intervention in the internal affairs of states without their acquiescence.

Economic Globalization: economic globalization places significant limits on the behavior of nation-states at present. For those who see the retreat of the nation-state, the growing power of unaccountable market forces and international organizations provokes calls for change.[6] As will be further elaborated below, the growth of multilateral institutions to manage the global economy constrains state action.etc

CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES TO THE NATION STATE: Separatism, secessionism, irredentism, ethnocentrism, globalisation and fundamentalism. At the beginning of the 21st century, the perception of the nation-state is increasingly challenged by the neo-liberalist movements of economic globalisation and supra-national entities. In coalition with economic globalisation is cultural globalisation or Westernisation. Whilst not the intended results of economic globalisation, Westernisation is a significant by-product that can undermine national cultural identities compounding nationalism issues. In recent decades, the increasing rise of religious fundamentalist organisations, combined with quasi-political movements and non-state actors, have also sought the redefining of nationalist beliefs. Nationalism at the turn of the 21st century is still a potent political force; however its aims and goals are as varied as its practitioners.

(b) Discuss the key features of pre-Marxist socialist theory.

The pre-Marxist “Utopian socialist” thinker Henri de Saint-Simon believed that the nature of the state would change under socialism from that of political rule (via coercion) over people to a scientific administration of things and a direction of processes of production. Specifically, the state would become a coordinating entity for production as opposed to a mechanism for political control. According to Fredrick Engels, Saint-Simon foreshadowed the classical Marxist notion of the development of the state in a socialist society. Karl Marx understood the state to be an instrument of the class rule, dominated by the interests of the ruling class in any mode of production.

Socialism before the 20th century might be considered non-Marxist since marx and Engel’s ideas didn’t really take off until after his death. Take Robert Owens’ New Harmony experiment for instance.  Most socialism today is Marxist, but some modern Communists insist the the Soviet Union, China, etc are/were not “real” communism, so that might be non-Marxian.THE IDEA of a socialist society is a very old one–as old as class society itself. THE UTOPIANS were brilliant critics of industrial capitalism. But they did not look to the class struggle. Instead, they sought to create socialist communities that could be an example to convince the world–including capitalists–of the superiority of socialism.Engels put it this way: “The solution of the social problems, which as yet lay hidden in undeveloped economic conditions, the utopians attempted to evolve out of the human brain.” Read more plz wait..

(c) Compare and contrast the views of Kautilya and Machiavelli on Statecraft.


Kautilya believed that nations acted in their political, economic and military self-interest. He thought that foreign policy or diplomacy will be practiced as long as the sell-interest of the state is served because every state acts in a way to maximize the power and self interest. In his words he defines diplomacy as, “A King who understands the true implication of diplomacy conquers the whole world”. Kautilya’s work comes from his myths and beliefs where as Machiavelli mainly writes based on his experiences and examples from history. One of benefits of Kautilya’s work is that this imagination has given his work a robust structure and can last over a period of time.  In addition Machiavelli’s work can be considered as one of the possible subsets of Kautilya’s statecraft. The weakness of Kautilya’s work is that it is not empirical and is not time tested. Machiavelli and Kautilya both managed to blur the distinction between utility and morality.

Machiavelli and the Moral Dilemma of Statecraft

Machiavelli was a pragmatist in many respects, his positions place him firmly within the classical Western tradition of statecraft. In The Discourses, Machiavelli describes the cycle through which most civil states go, from oligarchy to revolution to democracy to anarchy. Niccolo Machiavelli was the Renaissance leader on political power and the statecraft. He was employed by the Florentine Republic in 1498 and went on many journeys to France and Germany to witness the statecraft in those countries first hand. However with all his experience Machiavelli was born at the wrong time because he had lived in Italy during the time of the French and Spanish war he was not able to accomplish much politically.

Nonetheless in 1512, after the Spanish took Italy, and the Medici family was reinstated in Florence, Machiavelli was expelled and lived the rest of his life in reflection and thought upon politics and the power that it holds. It was likely because of his exile that most people know of him because it was during this time that he wrote The Prince. A book on political power and how to maintain it.

He believed, and wrote in The Prince, that, assuming every ruler understood the basis of human nature that is that humanity was self-centered, rulers were to first and foremost preserve their own power, and were to base all of their decisions on achieving this goal.


1.Both were political thinkers, and symbolized a political theory; precisely about statecraft

2.Both deliberated at great length the acquisition, retention and perpetuation of this political power

3.Both helped or at least worked towards re-unification of ‘nation’; and saw conditions of their present “state” as abject

4.Both were chillingly realist about the intention and decisiveness of the ‘state’

5.Both are synonym for shrewd in their native language


1.Chanakya (or Kautilya) died in 283 BC, Machiavelli was born in 1469 AD

2.Machiavelli was more of a revolutionist while the school of thought Chanakya propagated was developed to some extent before him, for example at great learning centers like the ‘university’ at Taxila.

3.Chanakya almost single-handedly led to the formation of Mauryan Empire, first of the great empires in Indian history and one of the greatest empire in ancient world history. Forces united by him were a factor in the halt of  Alexander the Great and later in the defeat of generals after Alexander’s retreat.

4.Political influence of Machiavelli is dwarfed by that of Chanakya, but the reverse is true for the philosophical influence. The overall effect of Machiavelli in the Europe of those times and subsequently the West and the whole world, is unparalleled. Francis Bacon, John Milton, Hume, Adam Smith … the list of all time greats who were influenced by him seems endless.

5.Consequently, Chanakya is much taller figure in India while Machiavelli is so for the West in particular and the world in general.etc.


3.(a) “Plato was an enemy of the open society.” (Popper) Comment.

Ans.“The Open Society and Its Enemies” is a work on political philosophy by Karl Popper, a critique of theories of teleological historicism in which history unfolds inexorably according to universal laws. Popper criticizes and indicts as totalitarian Plato, Hegel and Karl Marx for relying on historicism to underpin their political philosophies, though his interpretations of all three philosophers have been criticized. Written during World War II, The Open Society and Its Enemies was first printed in London byRoutledge in 1945. Originally published in two volumes, “The Spell of Plato” and “The High Tide of Prophecy: Hegel, Marx, and the Aftermath”, a one volume edition with a new introduction by Alan Ryan and an essay by E. H. Gombrich was published by Princeton University Press in 2013.The work was on the Modern Library Board’s 100 Best Nonfiction books of the 20th century.

Popper develops a critique of historicism and a defense of the open society, liberal democracy. The subtitle of his first volume, The Spell of Plato, makes clear Popper’s central premise — namely, that most Plato interpreters through the ages have been seduced by his greatness. In so doing, Popper argues, they have taken his political philosophy as a benign idyll, without taking into account its dangerous tendencies toward totalitarian ideology.

Contrary to major Plato scholars of his day, Popper divorced Plato’s ideas from those of Socrates, claiming that the former in his later years expressed none of the humanitarian and democratic tendencies of his teacher. In particular, he accuses Plato of betraying Socrates in the Republic, wherein Plato portrays Socrates sympathizing with totalitarianism (see: Socratic problem).

Popper extols Plato’s analysis of social change and discontent, naming him as a great sociologist, yet rejects his solutions. This is dependent on Popper’s reading of the emerging humanitarian ideals of Athenian democracy as the birth pangs of his coveted “open society”. In his view, Plato’s historicist ideas are driven by a fear of the change that comes with such a liberal worldview. Popper also suggests that Plato was the victim of his own vanity, and had designs to become the supreme Philosopher King of his vision.etc..

(b) Discuss the relationship between base and superstructure in Marxist theory.

Ans. In Marxist theory, human society consists of two parts: the Base and superstructure. The Marxist theory of history explains the fundamental relationship between material conditions and ideas through the concept of base and superstructure. The base comprises the forces and relations of production—employer-employee work conditions, the technical division of labour, and property relations—into which people enter to produce the necessities and amenities of life. These relations determine society’s other relationships and ideas, which are described as its superstructure. The superstructure of a society includes its culture,institutions, political power structures, roles, rituals, and state. The base determines (conditions) the superstructure, yet their relation is not strictly causal, because the superstructure often influences the base; the influence of the base, however, predominates. In Orthodox Marxism, the base determines the superstructure in a one-way relationship.

The most important passage on this can be found in Marx’s preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy:

In the social production of their existence, men inevitably enter into definite relations, which are independent of their will, namely relations of production appropriate to a given stage in the development of their material forces of production. The totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundation, on which arises a legal and political superstructure and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness.

The mode of production of material life conditions the general process of social, political and intellectual life. It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence, but their social existence that determines their consciousness. At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or — this merely expresses the same thing in legal terms — with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto.For Marx, the most important conditioning elements in a society are the relationships through which it produces and distributes its wealth.

Upon this economic ‘base’ arises a complex ‘superstructure’. This is composed of state structures of law, institutions and political organisation which reflect the dominant social relationships; it also comprises an immense range of conventions and ideas, such as politics, philosophy, morality, and (most importantly for this blog) art. In class society, these are largely, though not exclusively, defined by the ruling class, to justify and maintain the unequal social relationships upon which their privileges depend. The ‘definite forms of social consciousness’ of the superstructure are known to Marxism asideology.


(c) Distinguish between Power and Authority.

Ans.Power and authority are separate but related concepts. A manager in an organization has authority if he or she has the right to direct the activities of others and expect them to respond with appropriate actions to attain organizational purposes. Authority most often comes from the duties and responsibilities delegated to a position holder in a bureaucratic structure. A company president can order a product design change, for instance, or a police officer has the authority to arrest an offender of the law.

Power is the possession of authority, control, or influence by which a person influences the actions of others, either by direct authority or by some other, more intangible means. A prime source of power is the possession of knowledge. A person with knowledge is oftentimes able to use that knowledge to directly or indirectly influence the actions of others. The authority of knowledge is often independent of levels or positions. Power can reinforce authority, and authority is one of the primary sources of power. 

Authority is the right given to a manager to achieve the objectives of the organisation. It is a right to get the things done through others. It is a right to take decisions. It is a right to give orders to the subordinates and to get obedience from them. A manager cannot do his work without authority.

Power is a broader concept than authority. Power is the ability of a person or a group to influence the beliefs and actions of other people. It is the ability to influence events. Power can be personal power. A person gets his personal power from his personality or from his expert knowledge.etc.

4. (a) Discuss the ‘crisis of legitimacy’ in capitalist societies. (Habermas)

    (b) Discuss Gramsci’s notion of ‘organic intellectuals’

    (c) Discuss David Easton’s model of systems analysis.


5. Comment on the following in about 150 words each:

(a) Secularism in the Indian Constitution

The Preamble to the Constitution of India signifies that India is a secular state. The Preamble reflects the way of life adopted by Indian citizens for themselves after independence. In fact every civilization has also been a mirror of way of life as well as reflecting movement of human spirit. Religion in each civilizastion has indicated about the faith of human beings in absolute values and a way of life to realize them.

Religious faith is continuously providing the passion to preserve in the way of life and if it declines, obedience degenerates into habit and habit slowly withers way. Therefore laws, customs, conventions and fashions etc. are not the only means of social control but the religion and morality also formulate and shape the human behavior. Religion and morality are the most influential forces of social control as well as the most effective guides of the human behavior. The social life of a man in addition of its economics, political, philosophical, scientific and other aspects, has also religious aspects. Religion is the major concern of man.

Man is always having religious quest which makes him able to become a restless creature even beyond the satisfaction of his physical needs. Religion revolves around man’s faith in the supernatural forces. Religion is concrete experience which is associated with emotions, especially with fear, awe or reverence. Many societies have a wide range of institutions connected with religion and a body of special officials, with forms or worship, ceremonies, sacred objects titles, pilgrimages, and the like. Looking at the definition of religion by Ogburn, “Religion is an attitude towards super human power, it may be submitted that religion explains the relation of man with god and also elaborate rules of conduct. Further Maxmuller defines, “Religion as a mental faculty or disposition which enables man to apprehend the infinite.

Maxmuller has attempted to define religion as a matter of belief in supernatural forces. Man believes that he is at the mercy of the supernatural forces and shows his subordination to them by means of prayers, hymns, and other acts, man believes that his disrespect and negligence towards religion would bring disaster so he engaged in endless endeavour to adjust himself with the supernatural. He attempts to do only the acts which are righteous and sacred to please the supernatural. Behaving in accordance with the norms laid down by religion is righteous and going against them is ‘sinful’.

Donald E. Smith, Professor of Political Science in Pennsylvania University provided what he regarded as a working definition of a secular state. This was in his book India as a Secular State. “The secular State is a State which guarantees individual and corporate freedom of religion, deals with the individual as a citizen irrespective of his religion, is not constitutionally connected to a particular religion, nor does it seek to promote or interfere with religion”.
The definition given by Smith reflects three aspects of secularism in the form of inter-related relations as:
1.Religion and Individual
2.Individual and State
3.State and Religion

These relations can be comprehensively elaborate by this triangle. These three associates are the three sides of a tri-angle, touching each other necessarily at three points and creating their mutually related angles. These three sets of angular relationship contain the total of religious freedom available in a society.
First of all these three angles, reflects the relationship between the religion and individuals. This relation contains’ positive freedom of religion’ which implies ‘reasonable unrestrained liberty of believing & practicing one’s religion.’ In other words, every person should be free to follow any religion, and to act upon its teachings and reject all other without any interference from the state. Religious freedom is the soul of principle of liberty enshrined in the Preamble to the Constitution of India.

(b) Satyagraha as a Strategy in the Indian National Movement

Ans. Satyagraha goal is winning over people’s hearts, and this can be achieved only with tremendous patience, Satyagraha is more than a political tool of resistance. The similarities of the Satyagraha to some of the greatest philosophical and religious tenets of the world have been observed and much written about. However, in the specific context of India, Satyagraha was an immense influence. It went a long way in instilling among the Indians a dignity for hard labor and mutual respect. In the traditional Indian society torn apart by caste and creed based discriminations, Satyagraha stated that no work was lowly. It championed secularism and went a long way in eradicating untouchability from the heart of India’s typically stratified society. Satyagraha glorified the role of women as an important member of the society. All in all, Satyagraha instilled in the Indian mind a dignity and a self respect that is yet unprecedented in its modern history. Gandhi’s system of Satyagraha was based on nonviolence, non-cooperation, truth and honesty. Gandhi used non violence in India’s freedom struggle as main weapon and India became independent from British rule.

Relevance of Gandhian Strategy

In modern times, nonviolent methods of action have been a powerful tool for social protest. There are many examples of non violence like civil resistance, non- violence resistance, and civil revolution. Here certain movements particularly influenced by a philosophy of nonviolence should be mentioned, including Mahatma Gandhi leading a decades-long nonviolent struggle against British rule in India, which eventually helped India win its independence in 1947, Gandhi had to pay for his ideals with his life, but he never veered from his innate faith in non-violence and his belief in the methods of Satyagraha. The significance of Satyagraha was soon accepted worldwide. Martin Luther King adopted the methods of Satyagraha in his fight against the racial discrimination of the American authorities in 1950.

Gandhigiri The public face of the movement, Anna Hazare, describes himself as a Gandhian. His social movement, centered in Ralegaon Siddhi in rural Maharashtra, harks back to Gandhi’s Phoenix farm and Sabarmati ashram. Many of his campaigns, against alcoholism or untouchability, make the Gandhian connect between social reform and political emancipation. His preaches non-violence is comfortable with religious idioms (a portrait of Bharat Mata hung behind him while he fasted for the Jan Lokpal Bill), 14 and makes personal probity the centre piece of the campaign. Yet, while the movement claims Gandhi’s morals and employs his methods, its political vision is as far as can be from Gandhi himself. Ironically, this is what makes it so successful in21st century India. Understanding this neo-Gandhian activism, “Gandhigiri” is key to understanding the Anna Hazare movement.

Gandhi dreamed of a new world of non-violence with overall peaceful environment. Non-violence is a universal phenomenon and it has great relevance and significance. It is the ultimate solution of all kinds of problems and conflicts in the society, nation and world. However, its result depends upon its understanding and proper application. The present scenario of violence and exploitation all over the world has raised an important issue. Any nation which has been suffered with communalism, dictatorship, corruption and power games really needs to go back to Gandhi’s conviction of nonviolence and truth as his mission. By adopting nonviolence, social, political, economic and religious conflicts shall be removed. Undoubtedly, the social doctrine of non violence that has emerged from Gandhian ideas has now become the key to forge and sustain the new social and political order. Today, there is need to adopt Ghandhian philosophy and ideology in overall world to remove all kind of problems and creating peaceful environment. Gandhi is not the past, he is the future. He is an early sign of what we can be.

(c) 99th Amendment of the Indian Constitution

National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC) was a proposed body which would have been responsible for the appointment and transfer of judges to the higher judiciary in India. The Commission was established by amending the Constitution of India through the ninety-ninth constitution amendment vide the Constitution (99th Amendment) Act, 2014 passed by the Lok Sabha on 13 August 2014 and by the Rajya Sabha on 14 August 2014.The NJAC would have replaced the collegium system for the appointment of judges as invoked by the Supreme court via judicial fiat by a new system. Along with the Constitution Amendment Act, the National Judicial Appointments Commission Act, 2014, was also passed by the Parliament of India to regulate the functions of the National Judicial Appointments CommissionThe NJAC Bill and the Constitutional Amendment Bill, was ratified by 16 of the state legislatures in India, and subsequently assented by the President of India Pranab Mukherjee on 31 December 2014.The NJAC Act and the Constitutional Amendment Act came into force from 13 April 2015.

On 16 October 2015 the Constitution Bench of Supreme Court by 4;1 Majority upheld the collegium system and struck down the NJAC as unconstitutional after hearing the petitions filed by several persons and bodies with Supreme Court Advocates on Record Association (SCAoRA) being the first and lead petitioner. Justices J S Khehar, MB Lokur, Kurian Joseph and Adarsh Kumar Goel had declared the 99th Amendment and NJAC Act unconstitutional while Justice Chelameswar upheld it.


As per the amended provisions of the constitution, the Commission would have consisted of the following six persons:

1. Chief Justice of India (Chairperson, ex officio)

2. wo other senior judges of the Supreme Court next to the Chief Justice of India – ex officio

3. The Union Minister of Law and Justice, ex-officio

4.Two eminent persons

These (two) eminent persons would have been nominated by a committee consisting of the

1.Chief Justice of India,

2.Prime Minister of India, and

3.Leader of Opposition in the Lok Sabha (or where there is no such Leader of Opposition, then, the Leader of single largest Opposition Party in Lok Sabha), provided that of the two eminent persons, one person would be from the Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes or OBC or minority communities or a woman. The eminent persons shall be nominated for a period of three years and shall not be eligible for re-nomination.

Functions of the Commission

As per the amended constitution, the functions of the Commission would have included the following:

1. Recommending persons for appointment as Chief Justice of India, Judges of the Supreme Court, Chief Justices of High Courts and other Judges of High Courts.

2.Recommending transfer of Chief Justices and other Judges of High Courts from one High Court to any other High Court.

3.Ensuring that the persons recommended are of ability, merit and other criteria mentioned in the regulations related to the act.

(d) Structure and Function of NITI Aayog

Ans. NITI Aayog is a Government of India policy think-tank established by PM Modi replacing the Planning Commission. The stated aim for NITI Aayog’s creation is to foster involvement and participation in the economic policy-making process by theState Governments of India, a “bottom-up” approach to planning in contrast to the Planning Commission’s tradition of “top-down” decision-making


Composition of NITI Ayog, Chairperson -Prime Minister Governing Council – Its members are Chief Ministers and Administrators of the Union Territories Regional Councils -These would be created as per need and its members would be chief ministers and administrators of UTs of respective regions. Vice-Chairperson – The Vice-chairperson of the Niti Ayog will be appointed by Prime Minister. The first Vice-Chairperson of Niti Ayog is Arvind Panagariya.

Niti Ayog has full time members (number unspecified), part time members (maximum 2 , these would be scholars from universities and research institutions), Ex-officio members (maximum 4, these are ministers from Union Council of Ministers), Special Invitees (appointed by PM for fixed tenure. Finally, there is a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the Niti Ayog, who is appointed by Prime Minister and has a rank similar to Secretary to the Government of India. Current CEO was named on January 10 (Sindhushree Khullar ). The secretariat will be established if deemed necessary.


1.To evolve a shared vision of national development priorities sectors and strategies with the active involvement of States in the light of national objectives

2.To foster cooperative federalism through structured support initiatives and mechanisms with the States on a continuous basis, recognizing that strong States make a strong nation.

 3.To develop mechanisms to formulate credible plans at the village level and aggregate these progressively at higher levels of government.

 4.To ensure, on areas that are specifically referred to it, that the interests of national security are incorporated in economic strategy and policy.

  5.To pay special attention to the sections of our society that may be at risk of not benefitting adequately from economic progress

  6 To design strategic and long term policy and programme frameworks and initiatives, and monitor their progress and their efficacy. 

   7.To provide advice and encourage partnerships between key stakeholders and national and international like-minded Think tanks, as well as educational and policy research institutions.

   6.To create a knowledge, innovation and entrepreneurial support system through a collaborative community of national and international experts, practitioners and other partners.

   9.To offer a platform for resolution of inter-sectoral and inter­ departmental issues in order to accelerate the implementation of the development agenda.

10.To focus on technology upgradation and capacity building for implementation of programmes and initiatives etc.

(e) Cooperative Federalism in India

Article 263 of the Constitution has provided for the setting up of an Inter-State Council for investigation, discussion and recommendation for better coordination of relation between the Centre and the States. Constitution of India has nowhere used the term ‘federal’, it has provided for a structure of governance which is essentially federal in nature. 

What is Cooperative Federalism:-

Federalism, or the relationship between a central authority and its smaller, constituent parts, can vary quite widely. Throughout history, different people have come up with different ways of dividing the responsibilities of government. One method of dividing this power is through cooperative federalism, in which the national government (often the legislature) enjoys almost unlimited authority to force the smaller parts of government (typically the states) to administer and enforce national policies.

In the US, cooperative federalism, nicknamed ‘marble cake federalism,’ became prominent during the New Deal of the 1930s. During this time, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Congress created a variety of federal programs as part of the New Deal, and these programs were administered by the states to help alleviate the effects of the Great Depression. For instance, the Works Progress Administration program put millions of unemployed to work maintaining roads, building state parks, and completing beautification projects across the United States.

How Does Cooperative Federalism Work:-

It’s creates a relationship in which the national govt. strongly influences the policies and behaviors of state governments, often through the use of funding for programs. For example, if the federal government is interested in ensuring that national highways are well-maintained, they might create grants in aid, a specific kind of grant from the federal government that provides funds for the states to pursue a policy. In this case, the grants in aid would likely be for purchasing asphalt or other supplies, or might provide funding to pay contractors and road construction workers.In some cases, the national government might give the state governments more control over a program through a block grant.

I think in contemporary word the cooperative federalism is much more popular under the PM Modi governance. There are many Advantages and Disadvantages of Cooperative Federalism:-


The major benefit of this change is that both the federal government and the state governments can now attack various problems.  We can see this, for example, in the field of education.  Cooperative federalism gives the national government the ability to participate in making education policy, but the states still have the power to do things on their own.  This puts more perspectives to work on a given problem.


The major disadvantage is that there is now much less in the way of state power.  With cooperative federalism, there is not as much room for states to be sovereign.  The federal government reaches into more and more areas of policy that were once reserved for the states.etc.


6.(a) Discuss the efficacy of judicial review in India.

The Indian Constitution adopted the Judicial Review on lines of U.S. Constitution. Parliament is not supreme under the Constitution of India. Its powers are limited in a manner that the power is divided between centre and states.In post-independence India, the inclusion of explicit provisions for‘ judicial review’ were necessary in order to give effect to the individual and group rights guaranteed in the text of the Constitution. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, who chaired the drafting committee of our Constituent Assembly, had described the provision related to the same as the ‘heart of the Constitution’. Article 13(2) of the Constitution of India prescribes that the Union or the States shall not make any law that takes away or abridges any of the fundamental rights, and any law made in contravention of the aforementioned mandate shall, to the extent of the contravention, be void.

While judicial review over administrative action has evolved on the lines of common law doctrines such as ‘proportionality’, ‘legitimate expectation’, ‘reasonableness’ and principles of natural justice, the Supreme Court of India and the various High Courts were given the power to rule on the constitutionality of legislative as well as administrative actions to protect and enforce the fundamental rights guaranteed in Part 3 of the Constitution. The higher courts are also approached to rule on questions of legislative competence, mostly in the context of Centre-State relations since Article 246 of the Constitution read with the 7th schedule, contemplates a clear demarcation as well as a zone of intersection between the law-making powers of the Union Parliament and the various State Legislatures.

Article 21: Expansion of fundamental rights

The emergency period and the infamous Habeas corpus constituted defining moment in history of judicial review in India. The strong criticism of the judgment gave solid base to judicial review and was followed by expansion of fundamental rights. Article 21 of the Constitution of India reads as follows: “No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.”

Judicial review is the power of the courts to declare that acts of the other branches of government are unconstitutional, and thus unenforceable. For example if Congress were to pass a law banning newspapers from printing information about certain political matters, courts would have the authority to rule that this law violates the First Amendment, and is therefore unconstitutional. State courts also have the power to strike down their own state’s laws based on the state or federal constitutions.

Today, we take judicial review for granted. In fact, it is one of the main characteristics of government in the United States. On an almost daily basis, court decisions come down from around the country striking down state and federal rules as being unconstitutional. Some of the topics of these laws in recent times include same sex marriage bans, voter identification laws, gun restrictions, government surveillance programs and restrictions on abortion.

b.Critically analyze the discretionary powers granted to the Governor by the Indian         Constitution.

The Governor of the state of India have similar powers and functions at the state level as that of the President of India at Union level. The Governor acts as the nominal head whereas the real power lies in the hand of the Chief Ministers of the states and the Chief Minister’s Council of Ministers. The Governors are appointed by the President for a term of 5 years.

Discretionary powers

The Governor has to act on the aid and advice of the Council of ministers headed by the Chief Minister. However, there are situations when the Governor has to act as per his/her own judgement and take decisions on his own. These are called the discretionary powers of the Governor. The Governor exercises them in the following cases:

In the appointment of the Chief Minister of a state

When no party gets a majority in the Vidhan Sabha, the Governor can either ask the leader of the single largest party or the consensus leader of two or more parties (that is, a coalition party) to form the government. The Governor then appoints the leader of the largest party to Chief Minister.

In informing the President of the failure of constitutional machinery in a state

The Governor can send a report to the President informing him or her that the State’s constitutional functioning has been compromised and recommending the President impose “President’s rule” upon the state.

Though in the exercise of all his powers the Governor is aided and advised by the Council of Ministers, in the exercise of his discretionary powers the Governor is not required to act according to the advice of his Ministers or even to seek such advice. If any question arises as to whether a matter is or is not a matter for which the Governor is not required by the Constitution to act in his discretion, the decision of the Governor is final.

Critical Overview:- The President also has veto power by which he can withhold or refuse to give assent to Bills (other than Money Bill) passed by the Parliament. Every bill passed by the Parliament goes to the President for his assent before it becomes a law. The President can send the bill back to the Parliament asking it to reconsider the bill. This ‘veto’ power is limited because, if the Parliament passes the same bill again and sends it back to the President, then, the President has to give assent to that bill. However, there is no mention in the Constitution about the time limit within which the President must send the bill back for reconsideration. This means that the President can just keep the bill pending with him without any time limit. This gives the President an informal power to use the veto in a very effective manner. This is sometimes referred to as ‘pocket veto’…

(c) “Identity politics has trumped development politics in India.” Comment.

The landslide victory of the BJP in UP in the Lok Sabha elections surprised not only its rivals and political observers, but even its own leaders. While the 71 seats won in UP significantly contributed to the BJP securing a majority in the Lok Sabha on its own, it is significant that the party made electoral gains across all castes and communities and across all regions in the state. This victory signalled a paradigm shift in voter behaviour, with a preference for good governance and development pushing out the identity politics of caste and community.

The 2014 Lok Sabha elections result in Uttar Pradesh (UP) surprised all, not because it went in favour of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), but because of the reach and sweep of the party, both in terms of geography and demography. On the eve of the poll, it was widely acknowledged that there was a Narendra Modi wave in UP. But even a generous assessment was that the BJP could at best replicate its 1998 performance – when it won 57 of the 82 seats, and secured 36.5% of the votes (Verma 2014). However, the voters thought otherwise.

Electoral Backdrop

The Lok Sabha elections was preceded by at least three signifi cant issues in UP. One, the Muzaffarnagar communal confl agration, which affected the social climate of the state, greatly dented the image of the Akhilesh Yadav government and the SP. The management of the riots and the post-riot relief camps angered both Hindus and Muslims.

Modi Wave

One feature of the 2014 election is the controversy over whether there was a Modi wave. All the parties opposed to the BJP denied its existence, and ridiculed the idea, saying that it was only in the media, not on the ground. But, looking at the crowds pulled by Modi, one was inclined to believe that the people who gathered in the scorching heat at his rallies were curious about him and his development model. However, the big question before the BJP and Modi was whether the crowds would be converted into votes for the BJP. Two things helped with the conversion. One was voter awareness and mobilisation campaigns. Such campaigns were launched by the Election Commission of India, several NGOs, various media outfi ts, several educational institutions in collaboration with district administrations, and political parties. That resulted in nearly a 10% higher voter turnout.

BJP Gains All-round

The election saw a phenomenal rise in support for the BJP, from a meagre 15% of the vote in the 2012 assembly election to 42.3% in 2014, a rise of 27.3% in two years. Even if we take changes in its vote share between 2009 and 2014, we see an increase of 24.8%.

7. (a) In the light of neo-economic policies adopted since 1991, examine the relevance of the term ‘socialist’ in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.

Ans.While I disagree with sticking to the “socialist” word in the preamble for other reasons, it tells the truth – despite all the economic reforms, India is still a socialist country. NREGA, reservations, a never-ending list of subsidies, a rank of 135 of the ease of doing business index, a societial hatered for corporations. The word socialist was introduced through the 42nd by Indira Gandhi in 1976, during the emergency emergency. Since several economic reforms have been introduced and socialism should be scrapped for the economic growth, what is the word socialism  what is the word ‘socialist’ still doing in the preamble?

In 2010, with Fali Nariman as its counsel, there was a petition by the Good Governance India Foundation, protesting the usage of the term socialist in the Preamble. But the petition was withdrawn on the advice of the court that it would be taken up at an appropriate time when any political party opposed it. It’s entirely possible that the existence of this word in the preamble hinders the development of free markets, and thus the word should be scrapped completely. I’d also like to add that we cannot use the presence of this word as an excuse for the economic state we’re in, given where China has reached while still claiming to be a “communist” nation, and being a “people’s” republic.etc..

Ambedkar’s views on socialism:-

Ambedkar was a proponent of a concept called state socialism. His idea was succulently summed up by him as “one man, one value in all walks of life political, economic and social”. He wanted to abolish landlordism and replace it with collective farming, the responsibility of providing resources squarely on the shoulders of the state.

Ambedkar’s views on adding ‘Socialist’ to our Constitution.   

There is very little ambiguity here. He quite clearly expressed his views during a Constituent Assembly debate in Parliament when a member, Prof K.T Shah from Bihar moved an Amendment to the original Preamble statement. He insisted that the words, “Secular, Federal, Socialist” be inserted into the statement.

(b) Identify the contested areas in Centre-State relations in India.

Article 1 of the Indian Constitution describes ‘India, that is Bharat’ as a ‘Union of States’, an expression which implies two things. Firstly, unlike the USA the Indian federation is not the result of an agreement between the units. Secondly, the units have no right to secede from the federation. In fact the States of the Indian federation have no independent existence of their own. Parliament can alter their names and territories without their consent. In the context of Centre-State relations, an assessment of the federal structure of government in the Constitution is essential. In fact a federal structure is a design of government in which there is division of power on territorial basis between the Centre and States. But both are limited government. Many theoreticians and scholars have contributed their ideas which led to the emergence of such limited governments to ensure people’s rights.

Role of Some Authorities in the Context of Centre-State Relations:-

The role of the President, Governors, Chief Ministers, Inter-State Council, National Develop-ment Council etc. are crucial in the Centre-State relations. It is, therefore, imperative to examine the roles of these authorities in the context of Centre-State relations.

Inter-State Council:-

The Sarkaria Commission had recommended the constitution of a permanent Inter-State Council, which should be charged with the duties set out in (b) and (c) of Article 263 of the Indian Constitution.

Centre’s Power to appoint Commission of Inquiry:-

The Centre has the power to appoint a Commission under the Commission of Inquiries Act, 1952 to enquire into any offence committed or misuse of power or position by the Chief Minister. This power has been utilised by the Centre on some occasions.

The Centre-State relations have always been a crucial issue. Strengthening the federal system is necessary for preserving the unity of India. The basic structure remains to be one where legislative, administrative and financial powers are disproportionately concentrated in the Union Government with the States having a large number of responsibilities without sufficient autonomy. The period since 1991, which witnessed a paradigm shift in the economic strategy from planned development to a market-oriented one, has also thrown up new issues and challenges for the federal set-up. The need for a thorough restructuring of Centre-State relations, in order to correct existing imbalances and strengthen the federal system by empowering the States with genuine autonomy.

(c) Discuss the ‘Right to Education’ and the concerns raised by it.

In 1990, at the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, Thailand, 155 countries including India took a pledge to ensure education for all by the year 2000. The pledge promised:

1.Care for development and early education of children in the age-group 0-6 years.

2.Spreading awareness about primary education for all.

3.Motivating youngsters to learn more.

4.Bringing down the illiteracy rate, with a special focus on female literacy.

5.Life skills for youngsters.

6.Education to improve overall quality of life.etc

However in 1998, when UNESCO and other agencies reviewed India’s position in achieving these goals, it was found that very little progress had been made.

Dakar Framework

In April 2000, 180 of a total of 193 countries came together for the World Education Forum in Dakar (Senegal). Participants acknowledged that a lot of people — people from the disadvantaged class, with low socio-economic status, and the underprivileged — were bereft of basic education. Amid discussions it was agreed that the right to education was a basic right. Thus the Dakar Framework was born.

According to UNESCO’s report on progress in primary education, around 7.74 crore children around the world are out of school. Three-fourths of these out-of-school children reside in 15 countries including India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Indonesia, China, Brazil and the African nations. With one-third of the world’s illiterate, the report places India 105th among 128 nations.

Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act

The Act promises free and compulsory education to any child in the age-group 6-14. The Act says that schools should be within a radius of 1-3 km from where the child lives. All government-aided schools have to reserve 25% of their seats for students from economically weak sections (EWS). Private schools that are not government-aided also have to reserve 25% of their seats in Class 1 for EWS students; the government will compensate them. All government schools will have school management committees, 75% of whose members will be parents or guardians of the children.

Challenges in implementing the RTE Act

Out-of-school children

According to the 2001 census, 8.5 crore children are out of school in India. However, latest figures from the Human Resource Development Ministry put the number at 80 lakh. This disparity is because the government has been trying to divide the children into two sections.

According to the National Crime Records Bureau, every year around 65,000 children fall victim to trafficking. Only 10% of such cases are registered with the police. Officially, therefore, only 6,500 children are trafficking victims. Besides this, around 1.20 crore children are involved in child labour (2001 census), keeping them out of school.

8.(a) Examine the role of Panchayati Raj Institutions and Urban Local Bodies in deepening of democracy in India.

Consequent upon the 74th Constitutional amendment, the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) were made full fledged and vibrant institutions of Local Self Governments and witnessed a significant increase in responsibilities with greater powers, distinct sharing of resources with the State Government. The amendment empowered ULBs to function efficiently and effectively and to deliver services for economic development and social justice with regard to 18 subjects listed in the XIIth Schedule of the Constitution.

The Government of Tripura enacted the Tripura Municipal Act, 1994 empowering ULBs to function as institutions of self government and to accelerate economic development in urban areas. In Tripura, there is one Municipal Council and 15 Nagar Panchayats. The ULBs are governed by the Tripura Municipal Act, 1994. Each ULB area is divided into a number of wards, which is determined and notified by the State Government.

The main objective of this department is to strengthen the Panchayati Raj System in the state according to the 73rd amendment of Indian constitution. So that panchayats can realize the dream of rural administration and rural development with complete coordination and transparency. For this purpose the department has provided a Citizen Charter. For the sake of public convenience and knowledge, this charter has been divided into 7 subjects:-

1. Financial aid to Gram Panchayats.

2. Rural Cleanliness Programmes.

3. Responsibilities of the Panchayats- (Transparency in work, rural administration & development).

4. Responsibilities of public towards Panchayat.

5. Decentralization Programme.

6. Control over the Gram Panchayats

7. Arrangement of Panchayat Help-line.etc.

Audit of Transactions in Urban Local Bodies:-

Udaipur Nagar Panchayat had taken up single work by splitting into smaller components to avoid technical sanction of higher authority in violation of CPWD Manual. Due to non-selection of beneficiaries, huge amount of Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rojgar Yojana funds remained un-utilised.Non-adherence of prescribed guidelines resulted in irregular implementation of works under Member of Parliament Local Area Development Fund scheme. 


1.Drinking water supply, cleaning and maintenance facilities.

2.Maintenance of public lamp posts, roads, drainage system, cleanliness programmes, primary schools and maintenance of other public assets.

3. Construction of Panchayat Bhawans for meeting halls and for the residence of secretary of Gram Panchayat.

4. Construction of Gramin Kisan Bazaar and Livestock Markets.

5. Construction of underground water drainage system for the objective of environmental cleanliness.etc.


Sampoorna Swachchta Abhiyan (Complete Cleanliness Mission) is a programme financed by the Indian government with an objective to provide toilets to all rural families by the end of year 2012 and to make the public aware of the cleanliness programmes and to encourage them to learn and follow cleanliness habits.

1.Usage of toilets by the rural inhabitants and to change the habit of open toilets till 2012.

2.To construct toilets in government schools and Anganwadi Centres for children in order to develop the habit of using toilets among children from their childhood.

3. To develop the habit of washing hands before taking meals and after using toilets in rural areas.

4. To control the diseases arising due to the usage of dirty water by practicing cleanliness in rural areas.etc..


1.For promoting education Gram Panchayats have to open primary and secondary schools.

2.All the present and new Hand Pumps are the asset of Gram Panchayat. Gram Panchayat is responsible for the repair and maintenance of these Handpumps.

3.Akhadas, Gyms, Sports Ground and Sports related works are being operated by the Gram Panchayat for youth welfare.

4.Medical, Health, Family welfare and Mother & Child welfare centres are all under the control of Gram Panchayat.etc..

(b) Compare the Nehruvian and Gandhian models of development.

The Nehruvian concept is the dominant concept of development. Gandhi never used the word development. The word was first used by the US president Harry S Truman in 1949. Yes, people often talk of the Gandhian model of development. But if such a model is genuinely Gandhian then it is not about development. And if it’s about development, then bringing in Gandhi is an exercise in legitimising something alien to Gandhi’s vision.

Nehruvian Model of development:-

Nehru was a hostage to the development economics consensus of his times, both in terms of its insights as well as its policy flaws Jawaharlal Nehru was an economic modernist. He believed that rapid industrialisation was the most effective way to win the battle against mass poverty.  The theoretical debates about Indian planning models are numbing. Here at, I try to focus on four broad principles in the Nehruvian economic strategy to show how Nehru was a hostage to the development economics consensus of his times.

1.the development economists of the day said that the basic challenge for a poor country such as India was to increase its stock of productive capital as well as absorb modern technology.

2.the speed at which capital could be accumulated depended on the domestic savings rate. The West Indian Nobel laureate W. Arthur Lewis had succinctly presented the problem in terms of how a poor country can raise its voluntary savings rate from 5% to 20% of national income. In short, the main focus of the development strategy was on increasing savings to create resources for asset creation.

3.The government was to take the lead in industrialisation. This was very much part of the development consensus of those years.

4.there was a deep suspicion of foreign trade. Some scholars believe that this was the reaction of a country that had initially been colonised by a trading company, while others argue it was a more practical response to the declining terms of trade for underdeveloped countries thanks to falling commodity prices after the end of the Korean War.

Gandhian Model of development:-

1.Development should be holistic { economical , intellectual, emotional & spiritual} & Nonexploitative, i.e. sustainable.

2. Possible only in “Self sufficient Village Republics ” : Gram-swaraj & Swadeshi

3. Gandhiji: I do visualise electricity, ship building, iron works, machine making and the like existing side by side with village handicrafts. But the order of dependence will be reversed.

4. The mantra : rural industrialization -wealth generation in a distributed manner & not redistribution of wealth generated centrally – the need for S ,T & M inputs

5.Increase wealth of nation through Planned growth in agriculture and industry–emphasis on centralized technologies.

6.The wealth would trickle down to masses thus alleviating poverty.

7.Help to village industries only a stop gap arrangement for ‘quick employment generation.etc…

Gandhiji’s Critique of “Industrialism”

1.Crossing river on the basis of average depth – Need for equity

2.Based on Exploitation- of Man, Nature – Need for non violence , concept of ahimsa

3.Unhealthy dependence & vulnerability – Need for self sufficiency in basic necessities , concept of swadeshi

4.Unnecessary mechanization – Need for appropriate technology –less capital requirement , more employment , meaningful jobs.

5.Pampers baser instincts – Self control is a virtue , concept of swaraj etc…

(c) Account for the rise of regional political parties and assess their role in contemporary India.

Till 1967, there was only one party ruling the nation that was ‘Congress’; but post 1967 a lot of other political parties came to the forefront along with power and started to play an imperative and persuasive role and also started participating in government decision making process. With the regional parties coming to the forefront the development of the state’s responsibility has gone to the regional parties as opposed to the central government taking care in the initial stages. They are also equally involved and responsible to form the policies for not only the nation but also the state. The regional parties should genuinely concentrate on improving the prospects and living conditions of the local people and try to give them better facilities for their basic living.

Regional parties are playing a major role in the Indian Politics and their influence is not just limited to particular religion or state but their decisions and thought process are important in the government planning processes and decisions. The occurrence of increasing number of regional parties has signified the various segmental personalities and interests. It has resulted into a huge gamut of culture and sub culture, caste and sub castes, philological and sub philological combinations and amalgamations on India’s political background.

This situation is applicable not only to the centre, but also to the state politics. If a party is unable to win the required number of seats, a coalition is the only option. This could mean two regional parties joining hands to form the government (an unlikely event!), or the majority parties joining hands with the regional party who are supportive or sympathetic towards them.

However, is this trend desirable? With small local parties sprouting on a regular basis, we must raise this question. Take the case of Tamil Nadu. The Dravida Munetra Kazhagam (DMK) started out as a party born out of certain political ideologies. But today there are half a dozen spin-offs, ranging from the AIADMK, MDMK, DMDK, PMK, VCK etc. Most of these other parties are a result of intra party feuds, and expulsions. Likewise in the communist stronghold of Kerala, there are several communist parties.

It is a never ending debate. We can continue to argue on both sides, and never reach a satisfactory conclusion. As of now, in the current situation, having the support of regional parties in the centre will work in favor of the dominant parties. With the elections looming large, the verdict can be passed only over time.


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