Disaster Management For IAS Main’s 2016-17 Model Solved Questions

By- Dr. Ravi Agrahari’s (Scientist at IIT Delhi.)

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Q.1 Discuss the role of press in disaster management. What are the various steps taken by the government to spread awareness among public to make them prepared for any such disaster incident?

CEO at IASmind
CEO at IASmind

Ans. The Hyogo framework for action 2005-2015 titled ‘Building the resilience of nations and communities to disaster’ was the first plan to explain, describe and detail the work that is required from all different sectors and actors to reduce disaster losses. It involved many governments, international agencies, disaster experts and others to a common system of coordination for disaster risk reduction. It outlined 5 priorities for action and guidelines and means for achieving disaster resilience and these are considered as blue print for action in disaster management. One of the 5 priorities of Hyogo framework is to strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels, it includes ensured preparedness of governments, other authorities, individuals and communities in hazard prone areas to act and equipped with knowledge and capacities for effective disaster management. In the light of this, the capacity development of stakeholders is very critical components towards effective risk reduction at ground level, which requires a platform for communication between the disaster managers across the country, specially states and stakeholders for sharing efforts on risk reduction and making them informed and aware. When disaster comes it brings a panic situation for public, and it is required that they should be in advance prepared for handling such situations and rescuing themselves and others also.

Thus press becomes a medium of communication here; it is a platform through which effective communication can be made. It includes Radios, Books, Newspapers, Training modules, magazines, News Channels, social media, Mobile apps etc. With the help of these mediums the purpose of capacity building can be fulfilled. Therefore government has taken many small and big initiatives in this regard to keep the public informed about their surroundings and prepare them to handle disasters such as they have using mass media to aware the public for Do’s and Don’ts, as it was done during Nepal earthquake.

They have launched Mobile applications like ‘SAFAR- AIR’ and ‘INDIA WHEATHER’ to keep the stakeholders informed with real time air quality and weather related information respectively. Recently NDMA (national disaster management authority) it has also released a quarterly newsletter “SAMVAD” as a platform for sharing information and efforts by various disaster managers, states and all stakeholders, with a aim of capacity building.

Q.2 ‘Disaster management authority act is not just an act in parliament but action on ground’. Elucidate.
Ans. Vulnerability of India to disasters is not new, India is one of the oldest civilizations, and therefore has remained vulnerable to various hazards since then. But the difference here is approach adopted by India to tackle such situations. Since independence it has adopted the approach of only reactive, responding and relieving the victims till 1999, but after the 1999 Orissa cyclone and 2001 Bhuj Gujarat earthquake, India realized that it has to adopt a holistic approach for tackling such disasters. Further, the Tsunami of 2004 has shaken India internally, after that a paradigm shift was seen in the approach adopted for tackling disaster management, it shifted towards a integrated and holistic approach containing prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and post- intervention recovery and rehabilitation processes as its basis.

With this comprehensive approach it passed Disaster management act in 2005, the way this act was passed and the way country has taken steps in this regard are commendable. The act was also passes with a comprehensive approach and the actions taken thereof on the grounds also keeps pace with this approach. This act is considered as action on ground because of the following rapid actions taken-

• The act was passed in December 2005, with a single voice without any opposition and hindrance.

• An apex body NDMA (National disaster management authority) was created with the enactment of this act.

• NIDM (National Institute of disaster management) was given nodal functions and responsibilities of research, capacity building, and training and human resource development for disaster management.

• NDRF (National Disaster response force) is a separate police force mentioned under this act and was created very next year, for specialist response to threats of disasters.

Therefore all the institutions have different responsibilities under an integrated approach and started functioning very soon. They have proven their worth every time after their creation, as the way they rescued people from Kedarnath flood situation (Human Bridge made by the rescue team), Jammu and Kashmir Flood, HudHud cyclone, and Nepal earthquake is commendable.

On the ground level, in actual disaster situations they have proven that India has understood that how to deal with disasters. They have mitigated the loss upto a large extent. These are achievement of Disaster Management act 2005 on the ground level. Therefore it was not only an act of parliament but yes it is action on the ground.

Q.3 ‘India has moved forward in Disaster management but there are grounds to cover.’ Elaborate.
Ans. Vulnerability of India to disasters is not new, India is one of the oldest civilizations, and therefore has remained vulnerable to various hazards since then. But the difference here is approach adopted by India to tackle such situations. Since independence it has adopted the approach of only reactive, responding and relieving the victims till 1999 Orissa cyclone and 2001 Bhuj Gujarat earthquake, at that time India realized it has to adopt a holistic approach for tackling such disasters.

Further, the Tsunami of 2004 has shaken India internally, after that a paradigm shift was seen in the approach adopted for tackling disaster management, it shifted towards a holistic approach containing prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and post-intervention recovery and rehabilitation processes as its basis. Major steps were taken by government of India after this incidence in the light and under guidelines of Hyogo framework which are passing of Disaster management act 2005 with a single voice, an apex body NIDM (National institute of Disaster management) was created under the act, NDMA (national disaster management authority) and SDMAs (State disaster management authorities) were created, NDRF (National disaster response force) was created, Separate experts, medical teams, ships, helicopters, defense personnel were arranged for any such incidents.

And it has achieved a lot after this, its achievements can be seen in its efforts during Kedarnath flood incident, HudHud cyclone, Jammu and Kashmir flood incident and a recent Nepal earthquake. The way it availed its rescue operations and saved human lives are commendable. Even though we have achieved a lot, in reducing disaster risk, but still a lot has to be done, we need a policy based on ground situation, we are moving day to day towards progress facing eventualities. We need not only provide relief operations, rescue operations, rehabilitation, and reconstruction but also we need to strike the root cause of it and prevent disaster, here comes need of precise research as we have understood how to deal with disasters, need of the hour is to integrate this understanding with research.

Also we need to enhance private sector participation in reducing disaster risk, need to enhance international cooperation for trans disciplinary research, have to work for capacity building of states and other stakeholders, as many states have yet not worked upon it and we also need to develop community capacity building. This all will make India one of the best disaster managers in the world.

Q.4 What are the priorities and global targets of- ‘Sendai framework for Disaster risk reduction 2015-30’. Explain how international agreements and collaborations are helpful in reducing disaster risk.
Ans. The Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction 2015-2030, titled as ‘Making the difference for Poverty, Health and Resilience’ is a major agreement of the post 2015 development agenda, with seven targets and four priorities for action. It was adopted by the UN general assembly following the 2015 Third UN world conference on Disaster risk reduction (WCDRR).

The Sendai agreement is the successor of Hyogo framework for action 2005-2015. Its aim is the substantial reduction disaster risk and losses in lives, livelihoods and health and in the economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental assets of persons, businesses, communities and countries. Its fours priorities are-

• Understanding disaster risk.

• Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk.

• Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience.

• Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction.

Its seven global targets are-

• Substantially reduce global disaster mortality by 2030, aiming to lower average per 1,00,000 global mortality rate in the decade 2020-2030 compared to the period 2005-2015.

• Substantially reduce the number of affected people by 2030, aiming to lower average per 1,00,000 global mortality rate in the decade 2020-2030 compared to the period 2005-2015.

• Reduce direct disaster economic loss in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP) by 2030.

• Substantially reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services, among them health and education facilities, including through resilience by 2030.

• Substantially increase the number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies by 2020.

• Substantially enhance international cooperation to developing countries by 2030.

• Substantially increase the availability of and access to multi hazard early warning systems disaster risk information and assessments to the people by 2030.

The Hyogo framework as blue print of actions and Sendai framework as multiplier of such actions has proved that international cooperation and collaborations can help mitigate the losses of disasters, especially for developing and underdeveloped countries. International frameworks give guidelines to world to walk on a same path to achieve the target.

It also enhance accessibility to technology, forecasting and warning systems for the developing and underdeveloped countries who are rather far behind in technological aspects and vulnerable to disasters, also through involvement of international NGO’s and disaster experts, the prevention, mitigation recovery and rehabilitation process also becomes accessible and effective.

Q.5 “Capacity, Coordination and Community participation”, these three C’s are three Pillars stones of disaster management. Elaborate. Discuss the role of NDRF in capacity building for disaster management.
Ans. As after the Tsunami of 2004, India made a paradigm shift in its approach towards disaster management, it earlier included only reactive, responding and relieving processes but afterwards it also included preventive, mitigating and preparing processes, and these three C’s are three pillars on which prevention, mitigation and preparedness are lied upon. It was realized that disaster management is a joint effort and therefore preparedness at all levels is critical in hours of crisis to tackle disasters.

Capacity includes technological framework, institutional framework, equipment availability, trained Human resource with knowledge and information, response team, rescue and search teams, police force, food and health facilities, aware, informed and participating public, to work in the hours of crisis.

This preparedness needs to be at national level, state level, local level, and also at individual level. Coordination, As disaster management is a joint effort, coordination between various related institutions, centre, states and local authorities, rescue and search teams, rehabilitation teams, police force, Local NGO’s, and other disaster managers is of immense importance, so that all should work in single direction in their respective fields in a coordinated way.

No confusions in directions should be there. Community participation, many times during crisis connectivity to the effected site becomes difficult as road and railway infrastructure in India is still not well developed. Many times communication system also fails. In such situation, rescue teams are unable to reach to the site. Therefore the local community, civil societies, NGO’s and in fact each and every individual can help each other in such situation, specially for initial emergency medical treatment, rescuing people and taking them to safe settlements, motivating victims etc .

The need is that they all should be informed and trained in advance. Therefore, their participation becomes an important part in disaster management. Thus, these three C’s combined are three pillars of disaster management, as only policy framework and apex institutions alone not enough for this purpose. NDRF is a police force which is created with an aim of providing special response in any disaster situation. They have proven their worth in every crisis they have taken part, apart from this they also do the work of Emergency management exercises, through which they check and improve the preparedness of various local authorities, related to this with the aim their capacity building. It also provides training to various NGO’s and Civil societies about how to work and provide relief to the victims of disaster. They are trained with initial medical care capabilities, so that they should perform in such situations. In this way NDRF plays an important role in capacity building.

Q.6 During the recent Nepal earthquake, India has shown that its disaster management preparedness not only benefits India but also its neighboring countries and many more littoral countries. Elucidate.
Ans. Nepal is one of the neighboring countries of India, and we have maintained always a good relation with Nepal. Without any expectations India has given a lot economic, trade, employment and diplomatic benefits to Nepal. India also shares its earthquake prone Himalayan boundary with Nepal. So, in the hours of crisis in Nepal, when on 25th April 2015 a high frequency and intensity earthquake of 7.8 magnitude hit Nepal, India also shared its disaster management capabilities with it. India showed that India has only one approach towards Nepal and that is friendship and Nepal’s progress and India walked shoulder to shoulder with Nepal in its crisis.

Keeping in view the sovereignty of Nepal, India extended it all possible logistics assistance like deployment of resources of army, Indian air force, National disaster response force, providing food, water, medicines, tents, blankets, water purifying systems etc, within six hours of earthquake. Our forces worked round the clock in close coordination with government of Nepal.

It rescued 11 persons and 133 dead bodies. India also extended essential medical care, logistics, and free transportation to those whom we evacuated from Nepal to their native places. The activeness of India in extending its support to Nepal was commended by the world; it was all possible because India has achieved sufficient capabilities in disaster management.

It has kept its disaster management team separated, so that they could easily available in need. India also has one of the world’s best forecasting systems on which other 28 countries are also dependable for their forecasting purpose. In this way India’s achievement in disaster management are not only beneficial for India but other countries too, specially its small neighbors and other developing and under developed countries in Asia.

Q.7 Draw a relation between emerging tourism industry and transformations of hazards into disaster. Also suggest measures to mitigate the negative impacts of tourism on environment.
Ans. We can say Environmental degradation is inversely proportional to Economic development and these two phenomena are interrelated and interdependent. For economic development of any country, its resources whether they are natural, environmental, or human are the key factors. Economic development of any country depends upon how much and better its resources are utilized. If the use of resources is greater than its regeneration capability, then it results into environmental degradation.

Therefore it is necessary to maintain a balance between use and regeneration of resources, which is called sustainable development. Development of tourism as an industry is also a step towards economic development, which may also have some negative impacts on the country. We know that sometimes anthropogenic activities supplements transformation of hazards into disaster, like urbanization in hilly areas, development of infrastructure like roads, railways and bridges triggers the incidents of landslides, earthquake, and avalanches.

Similarly the sewage and blockage in drainage systems like problems may also result into flood. Habitation near to coast may destroyed by cyclones and tsunami. Therefore human interference increases the possibilities of disasters. In the same way tourism development and excessive human interference in in disaster prone areas may turns even small hazards into disaster. It has various negative impacts like, depletion of natural resources, water resources, land degradation, pollution (Air, Noise, solid waste, littering, sewage), destruction and alterations of ecosystem. Degradation of attractive landslide sites, such as mountain tops and slopes.

Land clearing, deforestation for constructions, loss of biodiversity, depletion of ozone layer, and climate change. These all negative impacts have potential threats to transform even small hazards into disasters. Therefore tourism in India should be developed in such a way that it attracts tourists from around entire world, and entertains them in such a way that is minimum intrusive or destructive to the environment, in short Eco-tourism should be adopted, which means ecologically sensitive tourism, keeping in mind the sustainable growth of the country.

Q.8 With reference to the recent Nepal earthquake, it was suggested by the experts that earthquakes are the most unpredictable natural hazards while others can be predicted. Why is it so? Even though they are unpredictable still we can mitigate their impacts, how? Suggest some measures.
Ans. The loss in Nepal would have been mitigated if Nepal would have been prepared for any such disaster. The scientists of the world have already warned Nepal earlier for high intensity earthquake as the country is situated at the converging plate boundaries of Indian plate and Eurasian plate, But now nothing can be done for what has been passed but the disaster prone countries, specially earthquake prone countries should be prepared for disaster risk reduction always as till now we can only predict, where it is likely to occur, but when it cannot be predicted as we can do for other natural phenomena.

The geographical study and various branches have moved so forward in studying the natural phenomena and their properties, that we can predict the time and frequency of Cyclones, Tsunami, flood, rainfall, drought, etc. but the brief history of science of  seismology is yet uncovered. And this is the reason why Earthquake is most unpredictable natural disaster whereas others can be predicted well before time. ‘Earthquake is a strain energy accumulating in a fault under earth surface and its rapture over a period of time” it is also unpredictable because there are number of reasons effecting strain energy accumulating in a fault and its rapture.

So far almost 90 percent of the earthquake predictions done are based on statistical correlation and analysis, we calibrate these statistical models with past data and we try to predict next return of events like earthquake. Thus, it’s an uncertain assumption and we can only predict where it is likely to occur but when no one can predict till now. There are studies going on, may be in future we can predict this also, but until that although we cannot predict its occurrence and it cannot be prevented, but it doesn’t mean that the its risk cannot be mitigated, it can be mitigated in following ways-

• Buildings in the earthquake prone areas should be made earthquake resistant with strength, stiffness and inelastic deformation capacity.

 

• Policy decisions about construction of structures with due approval from specified authorities have to be taken.

• Clear guidelines for earthquake resistance structures formation and selection of sites, especially environmental impact assessments are to be taken seriously.

• Supporting research and development in the field of disaster management.

• Evolving educational environment and technical training for the technical students and community.

• Involving community in the process through education and awareness for pre and post disaster activities.

• Linking and preparing Local NGO’s in a network for emergency services. These are few important long-term, medium-term measures to mitigate the loss of earthquake.

Q.9 Due to the climate change there are repeated incidents of Disasters like Flood and drought in India, to overcome this ‘connecting rivers’ project is a welcome step, but it is has yet not gained any momentum. Discuss its significance in flood and drought like situations. What are the challenges in implementing this project?
Ans. India is located in south Asia, with diversity in regions, its geographical location is complex with diverse landforms. Its most of the part is located in tropical zone, where it has seasonal rainfall from June to September. Its climate is tropical monsoon climate. Also India is world’s second most populated country in the world with about 1.28 billion population. India with 2.4 % of the world’s surface area accounts for 17.5 % of its population.

About 72 % population of India is rural and about 54% population is dependent upon agriculture for their livelihood. Thus being primarily an agrarian country depending upon seasonal rainfall and monsoon climate, India is highly dependent upon monsoon for its irrigational water requirements, as the irrigation facility is not well developed. And therefore the uncertainty of monsoon, creation of adverse condition for it because of climate change impact like El-Niño and La-Nina, has a deep impact on Indian economy, its social sector and food security.

Indian northern rivers which originate from Himalayas are perennial rivers, whereas its peninsular rivers are seasonal and are dependent upon monsoon for its irrigational water requirements and If monsoon comes with high rainfall it brings flood in our perennial rivers whereas if it comes with low rainfall our regions near seasonal rainfall faces drought situation.

As our drainage is divided into two major systems, one Ganga drainage system which is perennial and Godavari drainage system which is seasonal, if we connect this two drainage systems, means if we can connect northern perennial rivers with central and southern seasonal rivers, the drought and flood situations can be controlled.

In both the situation of flood in northern rivers and drought in central and southern region, the water can be transformed towards Godavari drainage system. Therefore ‘connecting rivers’ project is a welcome step in this regard. Although there are huge benefits of this project but there are challenges also as below-

• Northern India and southern India are divided by high land like Deccan plateau and hard rocks. So, its difficult to make way for northern rivers to flow in south.

• It would be very costly project.

• The clearance of nearby areas of projects is a big problem, as already India is having large population density, especially near rivers basins. Resettlement and rehabilitation of population is also a issue.

• Environmental impact would be negative as it also requires clearance of forest.

• Flora and fauna of rivers as well near by areas will be drastically affected.

• River may also dry up, as it has happened in Russia.

• Ecological problem of river water and changing course of northern rivers may also affect northern region’s ecology.

• Inter-state water disputes. Therefore these are the major and serious concerns in implementing this project due to which it is still pending.

Q.10 Discuss how ‘National super computing mission’ will be helpful in reducing disaster risk.
Ans. ‘National Super computing mission’ has been launched with its vision statement; ‘Building Capacity and Capability’. It’s a joint effort of department of science and technology (DST) and department of electronics and information technology (Diety) and will be in connection with C-DAC and IISC Bangalore. It’s a visionary program to enable India to stand parallel with world class computing power nations. It aims at empowering our national academic and research and development institutions by installing a vast super computing grid with more than 70 high performing facilities in diverse areas.

Using these facility, our key departments, ministries, academic and research institutions can develop various applications of national relevance. This mission would make supercomputing accessible to a large scientific and technology community in the country. It would benefit the country by providing significant Qualitative and quantitative improvement in R&D and higher education in discipline of science and tech. it would enhance the capacity of country for solving multi-disciplinary grand challenges like new age crimes, new age diseases, various disasters etc. It also includes advanced research and development.

It has many benefits like vehicles, Aeroplanes, Massive structures, infrastructure building, and life saving drugs and new energy sources. In disaster management also it is very beneficial and as per the demand of the hour, in Disaster management we need to improve preventive and preparedness capacity for which research and development is the thrust area, which this supercomputing mission fulfills. It can serve in mankind in several ways like weather prediction, accuracy of forecast, real time tracking of natural phenomena, timely warning of cyclones which could save many lives and property.

Although we have these facilities but supercomputing has potentials to further such capabilities beyond current levels, covering the gap in disaster management.

Q.11 A decade has been over after the enactment of disaster management act 2005, which was India’s first integrated legal framework for reducing disaster risk. Discuss its decadal achievements and failures.
Ans. Disaster management act was enacted with a single voice in parliament in the wake of Tsunami of 2004. This disaster has shaken India internally; therefore India took disaster management as its national priority after this and enacted the Disaster management act 2005 with an integrated and holistic approach. It constituted an apex body for disaster management under the act that is NDMA (national disaster management authority), a separate capacity building body NIDM (National institute of disaster management) and a separate police for special response, rescue and search NDRF (National disaster response force). In its one decade this institutions have proven their worth as the way they have done their job during national and international crisis, is commendable. Their achievements are follows-

• NDRMF, national disaster risk management framework has been formulated which has spelled out the roles and guidelines for all stakeholders for implementation of national strategies and policies.

• Initiative of National composite risk assessment collaboration with World Bank, national hazard atlas, national response plan, national emergency operation center, which are underlined in NDRMF.

• Provided technical assistance to state disaster authorities.

• National disaster fund is created for meeting the expenses of emergency preparedness, response, mitigation, relief, and reconstruction.

• Mainstreaming of DRR (Disaster risk reduction) in development projects.

• PEER (Program of enhancing emergency response) has been initiated, which is a major step for capacity building.

• Has collaborated with ministry of education to include disaster management in education curricula.

• National Contingency plans have been formulated.

• It has helped saving lives by its early warning systems in Yamine 2007 cyclone in Sindh and Baluchistan province of Pakistan and other international relief to Srilanka, Myanmar, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. It has saved many lives and property and has mitigated the loss to a commendable extent during Kedarnath flood, Jammu and Kashmir flood, HudHud Cyclone, and has again proven their worth in international platform during Recent Nepal earthquake as actively within six hours it provided logistics to Nepal. Besides its achievements there are several failures of these institutes such as-

• There is a lot to be done for capacity building of all stake holders, in which these institutions are still far behind.

• A lot of research and development has to done which has not gained momentum yet.

• Lack of coordination among various institutes specially, NDMA and SDMAs has defeated the very objective of disaster management act, specially during Uttarakhand flood NMDA was criticized by even CAG but its arm NDRF had worked commendably. Even after 10 years of passing of act, only 21 states have established their SDMAs (state disaster management authority) which need to be completed in given time framework.

• At the point of Community participation also these institutions have not achieved enough; this needs prepare a network of NGOs and civil societies.

Q.12 No doubt Science and technology plays vital role in disaster management but the role of humanities in this regard is of equal importance. Enumerate.
Ans. As after Tsunami of 2004 Government of India has made a paradigm shift in the approach for disaster management and now the approach is an integrated and holistic approach which stands on 4 pillars- Prevention and mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. Hence, as this approach has been implemented with disaster management act 2005, it ensures that now India wants to touch every aspect of disaster management, it is ready to be prepared as much as possible.

We have now understood that how we have to deal disasters and now using this understanding we need to be prepared for multi-dimensions of disasters. For this we need a combination of both aspects of disaster management that is its technological aspects and its humanitarian aspects. In the light of this requirement, no doubt science and technology plays a vital role in mankind in several ways like weather prediction, accurate forecasting, real time tracking of natural phenomena, timely warning systems, communication systems, reasons for such phenomena, measures to mitigate its impact, medical treatment to injuries, scientific study of natural phenomena have enable us to fight various epidemics and diseases, disasters.

Modern equipments, architecture technology, disaster proof structures like earthquake resistant buildings, Mangrove forests, etc. what we have achieved till now in mitigating disaster risk is mostly possible because of development of science and technology.

Therefore its role in disaster risk reduction cannot be replaced. Although science and technology has irreplaceable role, but the role of humanities is also not negligible, as now we have shifted towards a holistic approach, where we are focusing on three C’s that is capacity building, coordination and community participation.

These all are humanities related aspects, without which science and technology cannot achieve every thing, because it has limitation of its reach, especially in developing country like India, where science and technology has still no reach in rural remote areas, here comes the humanities. It happens many times in crisis that we have facilities but we are unable to provide it to the effected area, sometime technological instrument stops working or gets destroyed in disasters, for example, communication system is mostly affected during weather related disasters.

In such situation, capable human resource, community participation like participation of NGO’s, civil societies, various communities and individuals can help in evacuating, rescuing and searching people, their emergency initial medical treatment can be done by them and many lives can be saved. Even CSR (Corporate social responsibility) of corporate sector can be utilized for rehabilitation and other purposes. Therefore disaster management is joint effort, and thus needs benefits from both science and technology and humanities to mitigate every possible risk. Every community or even individual should come forward for serving humanity during crisis as it’s a real social service saving human life.

Q.13 ‘The Hyogo framework in disaster management provided a blue print for disaster risk reduction activities’ in the light of the statement discuss its important features.
Ans. This statement was recently stated by our honorable union home minister in the world conference for disaster management in Sendai, Japan in his introductory speech. The Hyogo framework for action 2005-2015 titled ‘Building the resilience of nations and communities to disaster’ was the first plan to explain, describe and detail the work that is required from all different sectors and actors to reduce disaster losses. It involved many governments, international agencies, disaster experts and others to a common system of coordination for disaster risk reduction. It outlined 5 priorities for action and guidelines and means for achieving disaster resilience. Its goal was to reduce disaster losses by 2015 by building the resilience of nations and communities; it included loss of lives, and social, environmental and economic assets.

Its priorities or important features are-

• It wanted to ensure that disaster risk reduction should become a national and local priority with a strong institutional framework, which meant that countries should adopt comprehensive policies and legal and institutional frameworks for disaster management. To which India immediately responded and the Disaster management act 2005 was passed with a single voice in the parliament.

• It instructed to identify, asses and monitor disaster risk and enhance early warning system, as knowing the vulnerabilities is important to act on the basis of that knowledge. India is now among one of the best countries who have accurate forecasting and warning systems, even around 28 countries are dependent upon India for forecasting purposes.

• It directed for the use of knowledge, innovation and education for capacity building. India has included disaster management in its school education system, engineering and polytechnic colleges. 11th 5 year plan document also contained a detailed separate chapter on disaster management.

• It directed to reduce the underlying risk factors related to changing social, economic, environmental conditions and land use. India’s environmental impact assessment policy is in pace with it.

• It also directed to strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels, it includes ensured preparedness of governments, other authorities, individuals and communities in hazard prone areas to act and equipped with knowledge and capacities for effective disaster management.

In this regard India through disaster management act created NIDM, NDRF and NDMA like institutions. In this way India acted upon every guideline and directions of Hyogo Framework and achieved a lot improvement in its disaster management capabilities, this can be seen by comparing the loss caused by Tsunami which has shaken India and HudHud Cyclone in which only 49 lives were lost and a lot of lives were saved. This was the reason why our home minister called Hyogo framework a blueprint for disaster risk reduction activities.

Q.14 Do you think India has mainstreamed disaster risk reduction in its development policies at all levels if yes explain how?
Ans. India has now made a paradigm shift in its approach towards disaster reduction and moved towards holistic approach. India has acknowledged that disaster management is not sustainable without prevention and mitigation, for this India has made efforts in mainstreaming disaster risk reduction in its development policies at all level. India has worked on all levels whether it is International level, regional level, national level, state level, local level, community level or individual level.

There are various agreements, policies, programs, institutional frameworks enforced at all levels-

• At the international level it has worked with united nation platform for the Hyogo framework and Sendai framework which are the blueprint of action in DRR (Disaster risk reduction).

• At the regional level, recently India has initiated to organize a meeting of Asian countries for discussion on DRR in cooperative manner.

• At the national level DRR has been given a status of national priority and made it statutory obligation by passing Disaster management act 2005 in parliament. Under the act itself, its institutional bodies like NDMA, NIDM, and NDRF were constituted. Apart from these various national program are implemented from time to time like, National program for capacity building, National cyclone mitigation project, Landslide hazard mitigation, Disaster risk mitigation program, Awareness generation program etc.

• At the state level SDMAs (state disaster management authority) have been created, there is a plan to create a separate rescue teams for each disaster prone area, Training of rural masons, etc. 14th finance commission has also recommended to increase the percentage of states share from 32% to 42% from central pool.

• At Local level, it has mainstreamed in its urban and rural development schemes like construction of rural and urban housing and community assets, which are earthquake, cyclone, flood resistant, under Indira Awas yojna, Rajiv Awas yojna smart city, Amrut etc projects.

• At individual level, it has worked for including disaster management in educational curricula so that each individual should be informed and prepared about hoe to deal disasters. Dr. Ravi Agrahari’s Classes

Therefore it can be concluded that India has mainstreamed disaster risk reduction in its development policies at all levels, but still there are roles to play for capacity building, coordination, community participation and research and development.

Q.15. ‘Every Hazard is not disastrous but sometimes anthropogenic activities supplements transformation of Hazards into Disaster’. Elucidate.
Ans. To understand this we need to first understand the difference between hazard and disaster, hazards are the events, natural or anthropogenic which has potential threat and risk to human life, wealth, properties and environmental and ecological system. Not all hazards are turned into disasters, when hazards occurs with extensive loss are described as disasters. In short hazards along vulnerability are described as disaster.

To understand take an example, an earthquake occurs, in that a strong and stiff building stands unharmed whereas a weak and old building vulnerable to any hazard collapses loss occurs. Thus, for strong building this earthquake was only a hazard but for weak building it was a disaster. In this way we can say that every hazard is not a disaster but becomes disaster when combines with vulnerability.

Now, hazard and disaster both are of two types natural and man-made, but here we will see only how anthropogenic activities supplements transformation of hazard into disaster. Every natural resource has its own capacity to regenerate and if we use these resources carelessly without bothering about their capacity to regenerate, it results into environmental degradation that is why today we are talking about sustainable development.

And this blind use of resources is the reasons of transformation of hazards into disasters as below-

• Population expansion in geographical regions which are sensitive to hazards and disaster. For example, we know that coastal regions of India are vulnerable to cyclones, we should not have extended habitation very close to coasts, and it would save habitations and human life.

• Urbanization and tourism development in high hills are the reasons why landslides, avalanches and cloud burst turns into disaster in hilly areas.

• Uncontrolled and unregulated expansion of habitation.

• Deforestation.

• Lack of integrated and holistic policies of disaster management.

• Lack of knowledge and awareness among public for surviving hazards and disasters and also for understanding impacts of environmental degradation.

• Poverty and unregulated poor infrastructure creation.

• Lack of scientific and technological knowledge.

Therefore above are reasons which supplement the hazards transformation into disaster.

Q.16 Which states of India are more prone to cyclones and Why? Suggest measures to reduce the disaster risk of cyclones.

Ans. As India is located in tropical zone that is in between tropic of cancer and tropic of Capricorn, it is vulnerable to tropical cyclones. “A tropical cyclone is a rotational low pressure system in tropics when the central pressure falls from the surrounding and maximum sustained wind reaches about 62 kmph or more. It is a vast violent whirl of 150 to 800 km, spiraling around a centre and progressing along the surface of the sea at a rate of 300 to 500 km a day”.

A long coastline of India of about 7500 km of flat coastal terrain, shallow continental shelf, high population density, geographic locations and physiographic features of its coastal areas makes India in the North Indian Ocean (NIO) basin, extremely vulnerable to cyclones.

Total 13 coastal states and union territories of India are affected by cyclones, but four states Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal and one union territory, Puducherry on the East coast exposed to bay of Bengal sea and one state Gujarat in the west coast exposed to Arabian Sea are more vulnerable to hazards associated with cyclones.

As Tropical cyclones generally originate in the eastern side of the NIO basin and initially move in West-north westerly direction. More cyclones are formed in the bay of Bengal than in the Arabian sea because, in bay of Bengal, the cyclones get favorable conditions like warm water and less land area, therefore eastern states of India are more vulnerable to tropical cyclones than western state, as to reach the Arabian sea these cyclones have to cross a large continental area of India, so in crossing this much land area its energy decreases therefore even if it reaches to Arabian sea then also does not remains so powerful to make much loss. We can also mitigate the disaster risk of cyclones by some preventive measures-

• As its prediction is possible, we can improve efficiency of forecasting and warning system.

• Removal of habitants from coastal areas as soon as the alert is issued.

• Better communication system should be there so that the alert and warning should reach all the area under alert.

• Policy and programs should be clear and integrated so that in case of emergency all related institutions and authorities should work in one direction.

• Supporting research and development in the field of disaster management.

• Evolving educational environment and technical training for the technical students and community.

• Involving community in the process through education and awareness for pre and post disaster activities.

• Linking and preparing Local NGO’s in a network for emergency services.

• Mangrove forest can be implanted in the regions which are highly prone to cyclones.

Q.17 What are the various seismic zones of India and on what basis they have been categorized, explain. Suggest measures to mitigate the disaster risk of earthquakes.
Ans. Earthquakes are the perceptible shaking of the surface of the earth. They result from the sudden release of energy in the earth’s crust that creates seismic waves. The seismicity refers to the frequency and intensity of earthquake. India is highly vulnerable to high frequency and high intensity earthquakes. The reason behind it is Indian plate is moving in Asia with approximately with the speed of 47/mm per year. It’s almost 54% land is vulnerable to earthquake.

Therefore India is divided into 4 seismic zones, on the basis of its vulnerability to earthquakes and its siesmicity experienced in the past earthquake activities.

These zones are- Zone V-very severe intensity zone, broadly it comprises of entire northeastern India, parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Rann of Kutch in Gujarat, Parts of North Bihar and Andaman and Nicobar Island.

Zone IV- severe intensity zone, comprises of remaining parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, union territory of Delhi, Sikkim, Northern parts of U.P, Bihar and west Bengal, parts of Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan.

Zone III- moderate intensity zone, comprises of Kerela, Goa, Lakshwadeep islands, and remaining parts of U.P, Bihar, west Bengal, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhatisgarh, Orrisa, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu.

Zone II- Low intensity zone, comprises of Remaining parts of the country. As earthquake is most unpredictable natural disaster, it cannot be prevented, but it doesn’t mean that the its risk cannot be mitigated, it can be mitigated in following ways-

• Buildings in the earthquake prone areas should be made earthquake resistant with strength, stiffness and inelastic deformation capacity.

• Policy decisions about construction of structures with due approval from specified authorities have to be taken.

• Clear guidelines for earthquake resistance structures formation and selection of sites, especially environmental impact assessments are to be taken seriously.

• Supporting research and development in the field of disaster management.

• Evolving educational environment and technical training for the technical students and community.

• Involving community in the process through education and awareness for pre and post disaster activities. • Linking and preparing Local NGO’s in a network for emergency services.

These are few important long-term, medium-term measures to mitigate the loss of earthquake.

Q.18 Why India is more worried of disasters like flood and drought caused due to the impact of climate change? Discuss its direct and indirect consequences for India.
Ans. India is located in south Asia, with diversity in regions, its geographical location is complex with diverse landforms. Its most of the part is located in tropical zone, where it has seasonal rainfall from June to September. It is surrounded by three Seas in south and high Himalayas in north, which keeps its climate tropical monsoon climate. Therefore any climatic change like global warming, sea level rise would impact India deeply.

Sea level rise could result into submergence of its coastal regions and small islands whereas excessive heat or warming may destroy agriculture. Also India is world’s second most populated country in the world with about 1.28 billion population. India with 2.4 % of the world’s surface area accounts for 17.5 % of its population. About 72 % population of India is rural and about 54% population is dependent upon agriculture for their livelihood.

Thus being primarily an agrarian country with seasonal rainfall and monsoon climate, India highly dependent upon monsoon for its irrigational water requirements, as the irrigation facility is not well developed. Therefore, the uncertainty of monsoon like pre on set of monsoon, late on set of monsoon, monsoon with high rainfall, and monsoon with low rainfall creates sometimes flood situation in the country, specially in northern Himalayan rivers and sometimes drought situation, specially in peninsular region. Even sometimes a complex situation for India, as at the same time there occurs flood situation in a part of the country and drought situation in other part.

These flood and drought situation are occurring more frequent with global warming and climate change, creating El-Niño and La-Nina like adverse conditions for Indian monsoon, India is getting more vulnerable to this situation. This has deep impacts on India economically, socially, administratively and politically. Its consequences are-

• In all these cases the crops of farmers are either failed or destroyed, their land becomes infertile and many times poor farmer commits suicide as they lost their source of livelihood and their family also suffers.

• Many houses and other infrastructural facilities are destroyed in the flood creating more vulnerable situation for poor people.

• Production of agricultural items are effected, supply of food products decreases increasing inflation in country.

• Food security of India is affected, as supply and demand gap increases.

• Economic growth is hampered and so many direct and indirect impacts are there.

Therefore these hazards like flood and drought transforms into disaster, when it comes together with India’s vulnerability to climate change and its impacts, as disaster is equal to hazard plus vulnerability.

Q. 19 ‘India’s geographical condition makes its prone to different natural disasters occurring in its different regions’. Elaborate

Ans. India is located in south Asia, with diversity in regions, its geographical location creates a complex situation in India through different disasters occurring in different region. Peninsular India is surrounded by three seas, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal, where as in north it is bordered with high hills of Himalayas. India’s most of the part is located in tropical zone, where it has seasonal rainfall; its climate is basically monsoon based climate. It is primarily an agriculture based country with a large rural agriculture dependent population.

It is world’s second largest populated country and also one of world’s most disaster prone countries, with various disasters like cyclones, earthquakes, landslides, tsunami, flood and drought. If we see India’s northern region, basically Himalayan and Sub-Himalayan region which is highly prone to earthquakes, as it is located near two converging tectonic plate boundaries, which are continuously moving towards each other and are active zones for frequent earthquakes, apart from the Himalayan region Kutch region of Gujarat and Andaman and Nicobar island groups are also earthquake prone areas.

The hilly regions of Himalayas are also prone to frequent landslides, as most of the tourist places
in India are developed their. India’s coastal region is highly prone to Cyclones and Tsunami; especially the eastern coastal regions are more vulnerable to tropical cyclones, along with Gujarat and Maharashtra coast in western coastal region. Indian northern rivers which originate from Himalayas are perennial rivers, whereas its peninsular rivers are seasonal and are dependent upon monsoon for its water and the country depends upon monsoon for its irrigation purpose for agriculture.

The uncertainty of monsoon creates sometimes flood situation in the country and sometimes drought situation, even sometimes a complex disastrous situation for India, as at the same time there occurs flood situation in a part of the country and drought situation in other part, in all the cases the crops of farmers are either failed or destroyed, and many times poor farmers commits suicide, which becomes disastrous for them and their family, mostly the northern plain region U.P and Bihar are vulnerable to flood and the central Indian states like M.P etc face drought situation. In this way different region of India faces different disasters at the same time, which becomes difficult and complex to tackle.

Q.20 What are the principles on which disaster management is based on? What are the steps taken by the government to prevent and mitigate disaster risk, after the Tsunami of 2004, which has shaken India?

Ans. Disaster management is a holistic approach which is based on four basic principles- Prevention and mitigation, which emphasizes on capacity building this principle works on how we can prevent hazards (Man made), and if we cannot prevent at least we can reduce its loss. It includes institutional and technological development, for an example, various policies, programs and institutional frameworks. Preparedness, which emphasizes on being prepared to face any such incidence, especially in case when it is natural disaster, and cannot be controlled, for this we need better forecasting and warning systems, so that in an emergency, appropriate actions can be taken to reduce its loss. Response, it emphasizes on measures taken during occurrence of incidence, like evacuating people, rescue operations, supply of food items, taking victims to the safe shelter, providing health and medical facilities and providing immediate relief.

Post intervention emphasizes on actions after the disaster is over. It includes recovery from loss caused by the disaster, whether it is the recovery of health of public or infrastructure. It also needs huge financial backing. Therefore the recovery process depends upon the resilience of society, institutions and agencies, as much the resilience would be as fast the recovery will be. Tsunami of 2004 has shaken India, after that a paradigm shift was seen in the approach adopted for tackling disaster management, before this incidence the government opted for only reactive, responding and relieving approach, but after tsunami it shifted towards a holistic approach containing prevention, mitigation and preparedness as its base.

Major steps taken by government of India after this incidence are-

• A landmark step, Disaster management act 2005 was passed with a single voice; prior to it no such integrated legal framework was in force.

• An apex body NIDM (National institute of Disaster management) was created under the act of 2005 with the functions of human resource development, training, capacity building, research documentation and policy advocacy.

• NDMA (national disaster management authority) and SDMAs (State disaster management authorities) were created under the act.

• NDRF (National disaster response force) was created for the purpose of specialized response to disasters.

• Public private partnership and community disaster management were adopted.

• Separate experts, medical teams, ships, helicopters, defense personnel were arranged for any such incidents.

• Further, the 11 th 5 year document 2007-2012, contained a detailed chapter on disaster management.