Patriotism is a very complex feeling, built up out of primitive instincts and highly intellectual convictions. There is love of home and family and friends, making us peculiarly anxious to preserve our own country from invasion. There is the mild instinctive liking for compatriots against foreigners. There is pride, which is bound up with the success of the community to which we feel that we belong. There is a belief, suggested by pride, but reinforced by history, that one’s own nation represents a great tradition and stands for ideals that are important to the human race. But besides all these, there is another element, at once nobler and more open to attack, an element of worship, of willing sacrifice, of joyful merging of the individual life in the life of the nation. This religious element in patriotism is essential to the strength of the State, since it enlists the best that is in most men on the side of national sacrifice.

1. Which of the following is the central theme of the given passage?
a) Component elements of patriotism
b) Historical Development of patriotism
c) The Role of Religion and History In Patriotism
d) Need for patriotism in Nation building

2. What does the author imply by using the phrase “open to attack” for the element of worship in patriotism?
a) This element is unnecessary in some instances of patriotic behaviour
b) This element will call for various acts of national sacrifice
c) This element has no historical basis yet it is important
d) This element can cannot be justified on rational grounds

3. The tone of the passage can best be described as
a) Critical
b) Descriptive
c) Persuasive
d) Analytical

4. As per the passage, which one of the following statements is false?
a) We tend to like our own countrymen better than we like foreigners.
b) Nations always stand for ideals that are important to the human race.
c) It is the religious element in patriotism that motivates us for sacrificing ourselves for our nation
d) Our pride of the community is bound with the community’s success.

India’s quest for democracy survives inspite of Nehru’s incomplete efforts. Democracy is not what our rulers do, or fail to do. It is that relationship between civil and political society which produces a participatory and responsive system of governance. Democracy is not created by Constitutions, though it may be thwarted. Many Constitutions are no more than a conspiracy to work out arrangements for power sharing among the elite. Democracy acquires dimension from the social movements, and associational freedoms that grow from, and within civil society. Further, if Nehru’s democratic legacy is tested, the yardstick is not the extent to which his successors fell from Nehruvian grace as ministers or parliamentarians, but the extent to which civil society has engendered and found its capacity for sustained pressure and critique.

1.    Which of the following is the central theme of the above passage:
a)    A critique of Nehruvian Policies
b)    Introspecting Indian democratic credentials
c)    Components of a functional Indian democracy
d)    Meanings of Indian democracy

2.    Which of the following statements may be inferred from the given passage?
1.    Democracy stands for an organic relation between the ruled and the rulers, not merely a legal dictat
2.    Success of Indian democracy can be gauged fairly well by assessing the democratic practices adopted by post Nehruvian leaders
a)    1 only     b)    Both 1 and 2
c)    2 only    d)    Neither 1 nor 2

3. As per the passage, which of the following statement(s) is/are correct with respect to Indian Democracy?
1.    It’s a legacy of the vision of our great leaders
2.    Its true yardstick is the evolution and maturity of the civil society
3.    Social movements and their associational freedoms are a feature of Indian democracy
a)    1 only
b)    3 only
c)    1 and 3
d)    All the above

4.    What is the author’s tone in the above passage?
a)    Critical appreciation
b)    Descriptive assessment
c)    Retrospective analysis
d)    Argumentative exposition

Literature and history are twin sisters, inseparable. In the days of our own grandfathers, and for many generations before them, the basis of education was the Greek and Roman classics for the educated, and the Bible for all. In the classical authors and in the Bible, history and literature were closely intervolved, and it is that circumstance which made the old form of education so stimulating to the thought and imagination of our ancestors. To read the classical authors and to read the Bible was to read at once the history and the literature of the three greatest races of the ancient world. No doubt the classics and the Bible were read in a manner we now consider uncritical but they were read according to the best tenets of the time and formed a great humanistic education. Today the study both of the classics and of the Bible has dwindled to small proportions. What has taken their place? To some extent the vacuum has been filled by a more correct knowledge of history and a wider range of literature. But I fear that the greater part of it has been filled up with rubbish.

1. Which of the following is the central theme of the given passage?
a) Study of literature is meaningless without historical knowledge.
b) Literature and history are insperably linked together in the classics and Bible.
c) Literature and History are mutually exclusive as the basis of education
d) Need for both literature and history as the basis of Humanistic Education.

2. Consider the following statements:
1. In the past, the basis of education varied according to the intellectual caliber of the people.
2. The author finds the education of past more stimulating in fostering creativity.
a) 1 only
b) Both 1 and 2
c) 2 only
d) Neither 1 nor 2

3. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct with respect to the ancestral study of classics and the Bible?
1. They were studied with great emphasis on their literary value.
2. They were studied with critical discrimination in a methodical manner.
3. They were studied in a manner that broadened their world view.
a) 1 and 2
b) 1 and 3
c) All the above
d) None of the above

4. As per the author, the old form of education, based on the study of the classics and of the Bible has:
a) been totally phased out with passage of time
b) been rejuvenated in the light of modern education
c) formed the core of great humanistic education.
d) succeeded in creating interest in history

5. Consider the following statements:
1. The reading of classics and Bible had some deficiencies yet it was beneficial in a holistic sense.
2. The reading of classics and Bible here stood the test of time without dwindling.
3. The vacuum created in terms of reading of classics and Bible has not been adequately compensated.
Which of the above statements is correct?
a) 1 and 2
b) 1 and 3
c) 2 and 3
d) All the above

Nationalism, of course, is a curious phenomenon which at a certain stage in a country’s history gives life, growth, strength and unity but, at the same time, it has tendency, to limit one because one thinks of one’s own country as something different from the rest of the world. The perspective changes and one is continuously thinking of one’s own struggles and virtues and failings to the exclusion of other thoughts. The result is that the same nationalism, which is the symbol of growth for people, becomes a symbol of the cessation of that growth in the mind. Nationalism, when it becomes successful sometimes goes on spreading in an aggressive way and becomes a danger internationally. Whatever line of thought you follow, you arrive at the conclusion that some kind of balance must be found. Otherwise something that was good can turn into evil. Culture, which is essentially good, becomes not only static but aggressive and something that breeds conflict and hatred when looked at from a wrong point of view. How you are to find a balance? I do not know. Apart from political and economic problems of the age, perhaps that is the greatest problem today because behind it there is a tremendous conflict in the spirit of man and a tremendous search for something it cannot find. It is folly to talk of culture or even of God when human being starve and die. Before one can talk about anything else one must provide the normal essentials of life to human beings.

1. Which of the following is the most appropriate title of the given passage?
a) Nationalism breeds unity and growth for a nation
b) Nationalism – an instrument for prosperity as well as world unity
c) Nationalism is not enough
d) Nationalism and national problems

2. Which of the following statement(s) is/are supported by the above passage?
1. Nationalism is at the root of all nation building efforts in a country
2. There is an apparent dichotomy of ends that Nationalism can achieve
3. There is a need to strike a reasonable balance with regards to Nationalism
a) 1 and 2
b) 1 and 3
c) 2 and 3
d) All the above

3. Consider the following statements:
1. Aggressive nationalism breeds threat to international relation
2. The author is skeptical about achieving a balanced Nationalistic perspective
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
a) 1 only b) Both 1 and 2
c) 2 only d) Neither 1 nor 2

4. As per the author, the greatest problem mentioned in the middle of the passage refers to the question
a) how to mitigate hardship to human beings
b) how to contain the dangers of aggressive nationalism
c) how to share the economic burden equality
d) how to curb international hatred

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